Thursday, June 17, 2021

Reference Needed


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spirits_in_Bondage

Lewis was twenty years old and had just returned from military service in the First World War. His tutor, William T. Kirkpatrick, encouraged him in publishing the book, although it was unusual at Lewis's age, as writers were expected to wait longer before sharing their work with the world.


Were they?/HGL

Bonnie Prince Charlie


After Culloden, Charles Edward fled over Sea of the Hebrides to Skye, as recorded in a song written 125 years later:

The Skye Boat Song - Ella Roberts
4th of August | Ella Roberts
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XBSqQPP4aVM


And, 22 years after that, Voltaire wrote that "Reason" had made progress, the last 15 to 20 years. I have this information from Vincent Reynouard, who spoke about the role the French themselves had in bringing about the apostasy that became a revolution. In one of the recent numbers of Rivarol, a French right wing weekly. Now, Reason in the mouth of an Enlightenment philosopher means either enlightenment philosophy or attitudes very compatible with it. Like the Gospel in the mouth of a Reformer meant Protestantism. That Catholics, and of these those not at all into Enlightenment or Protestantism, might use their reason (what God gave their heads, not what Diderot gave their encyclopedia) and read their 4 gospels (in the Bible, not the Protestant tracts) is not what these propagandistic uses of the words really refer to. Instead, "reason" is used for Enlightenment here, like "the Gospel" was used for Protestantism in the previous item, 16th C.

I am going to argue, the progress of Enlightenment, or more properly, of Endarkenment, was because the failure of Culloden demoralised the Catholic loyalties. Could it have been the Partitions of Poland? No, not the 15 to 20 years prior to 1767. The first partition was in 1772. It was more a fruit of than a cause of Endarkenment in France. Could it have been the Seven Years' War? Partly, but it started when this period mentioned by Voltaire had already begun.

Now, I would argue, for the Catholic culture, 1914 to 1918 was a worse shock than (to some) 1945. In 1945, there were clearly Catholics on the winning side too. While this was in a way so also after The Great War, they were represented by if not always freemasons, at least always secularists - except when Protestants. And I would argue, the shock of Culloden was comparable to the shock of The Great War or of the Spanish-American War.

So, if Spain was not yet out of colonies, Protestant to Masonic US was not yet ruling Cuba and Philippines (and didn't exist yet), if France and Austria had not yet both lost their Catholic monarchs and on top of that Austria in a war involving France, what was it about Culloden that could traumatise Catholics?

First, England was the Dowry of the Blessed Virgin (and remains so, as Personal Prelature Our Lady of Walsingham likes to point out). In this land, for 186 years, since 1559, Catholics had been subject to what amounted to a Protestant Inquisition, but with political motives, so as not to be formally equivalent to the older laws against heresy, which were considered retroactively as Anti-Christian persecutions. The Act of Supremacy set up a real such. The Stuarts had been trying to give Catholics tolerance, to get them out of persecutions' way. After the failure in 1745, it took another 85 years, to 1830, before Catholics were, like Slaves, emancipated.

Second, the Stuart struggle for tolerance for Catholics was the very reason why they had been bereft of their thrones, much like Sigismund Wasa of the Swedish one (but he retained the Polish one).

Third, Bonnie Prince Charles was the heir of so much other Catholic valour as well. First and foremost, I'd put John III Sobieski. Louis XVI was ponly heir to Stanislas Leszczynski, but Bonnie Prince Charlie to the Great Sobieski himself - the liberator of Vienna in 1683; and also to other men having fought the Turks or, as Jan Daniłowicz, the Tatars. Stanisław Żółkiewski had fought against Lutheran Swedes in Livonia and supported the election of a Roman Catholic Czar, Władysław IV Vasa.

Fourth, he was not chased very ruthlessly himself, but those loyal to him were. He gave the impression, a bit like Jefferson Davis trying to flee in skirts, while many Southrons were deprived of much more than the legal ownership of their slaves, disproportionately, as per Sherman's barbarism, the impression I said of being a hired shepherd fleeing from the wolf while the sheep die. But Sherman was not as bloody as the Hannoveran repression in the Highlands, and Jefferson Davis was part time worse off than Bonnie Prince Charlie. The Catholic cause in 1745 took as deep a humiliation as the Dixie cause in 1865. If St. Peter had remained that way on the Via Appia, there might not have been any Catholicism.

A fifth scandal was going to take place, but this was after the time period indicated by Voltaire, after he wrote his letter.

Hans Georg Lundahl
Paris
St. Antidius of Besançon
17.VI.2021

PS, Appendix B is closely based on wikipedian articles. As all persons here are presented in couples, I add an "and" and only after that add "he married when so many years old, and died at that age; she married at this age and died at so many years old" - the facts on which I have based appendix A. All the articles are reachable from that of Bonnie Prince Charles, sometimes I have had to switch to another language.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Edward_Stuart

Appendix A - the available statistics

Let us note that the material is partly lacking. In ideal theory, we would have the statistics of 64 men (including Bonnie Prince Charles himself) and 63 women (excluding his wife whom I may save for a separate post) but in some cases ancestors were married more than once. I have included previous but not subsequent marriages, as the previous are relevant for age at first marriage. Then some are lacking so, instead of c. 70 per sex, we have 53 - 55. This basically means that each place value can have an error margin up to or close to the two neighbouring ones. However, I'll try to get a good genealogist have a look at the lacking persons.

He married, first time over, at:

14 14 17 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 22 22
14 14 17 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 22 22
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

22 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 27 27 27 27 28 30 30 31
22 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 25 25 27 27 27 28 30 30 31
23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44

31 31 35 36 37 38 40 40 52
31 31 35 36 37 38 39 40 52
45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53

Minimum, number 1/53, 14 years
Lower quartile, 14/53, 20 years
Median, 27/53, 23 years
Higher quartile, 40/53, 27 years
Max, 53/53, 52 years

He died at:

16 21 27 27 27 30 30 35 35 38 42 44 46 46 47 47 48 48 48 48 51 52
16 21 26 27 27 30 30 32 35 37 42 44 46 46 47 47 48 48 48 48 51 52
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

52 52 53 54 54 55 56 56 56 56 56 58 58 61 65 66 66 66 67 67 67 68
52 52 53 54 54 55 55 56 56 56 56 58 58 61 65 66 66 66 67 67 67 68
23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44

70 71 72 73 74 74 75 77 77 77 93
70 71 72 73 74 74 75 77 77 77 93
45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55

Minimum, 1/55, 16 years
Lower Quartile 14-15/55, 46 or 47 years
Median, 28/55, 55 years
Higher Quartile 41-42/55, 67 years
Maximum, 55/55, 93 years

She married, first time over, at:

12 12 13 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 17 17
12 12 13 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 17 17
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

17 17 17 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 21 22 23
17 17 17 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 22 22
23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44

23 23 23 25 26 26 26 27 29 30
23 23 23 25 25 26 26 27 29 30
45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54

Minimum, 1/54, 12 years
Lower quartile, 14/54, 16 years
Median 27-28/54, 17 years
Higher quartile, 41/54, 20 years
Maximum, 54/54, 30 years

She died at

16 21 21 30 31 31 32 33 34 34 35 35 35 38 40 41 43 43 44 44 44 44
16 20 21 30 31 31 32 33 34 34 35 35 35 38 40 41 43 43 44 44 44 44
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

44 46 46 47 48 48 49 50 54 54 57 57 58 58 59 59 60 60 61 61 61 62
44 46 46 47 48 48 49 50 54 54 57 57 58 58 59 59 60 60 61 61 61 62
23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44

62 67 69 69 70 72 74 74 74 77 80
62 67 69 69 70 72 74 74 74 77 80
45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55

Minimum, 1/55, 16 years
Lower Quartile 14-15/55, around 39 years
Median, 28/55, 48 years
Higher Quartile 41-42/55, 61 years
Maximum, 55/55, 80 years


Appendix B - biographic details, when available.

I gave name and title, sometimes only birth title prior to marriage, life dates, age at marriage and at death. When there were previous marriages, I first give the age at the relevent one, leading up to Bonnie Prince Charles.

Generation 1 - the person himself:

1 Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Sylvester Severino Maria Stuart (20 December 1720 – 30 January 1788) : he married at 52, died at 67.

Generation 2 - his parents:

2 James Francis Edward Stuart (10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766) and 3 Maria Clementina Sobieska (Polish: Maria Klementyna Sobieska;[1] 18 July 1702 – 18 January 1735) : he married at 31, died at 77;she married at 17, died at 33.

Generation 3 - his grandparents:

4 James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701[1]) and 5 Mary of Modena (Italian: Maria Beatrice Eleonora Anna Margherita Isabella d'Este, or Maria di Modena;[1] 5 October [O.S. 25 September] 1658 – 7 May [O.S. 26 April] 1718) :he married (second marriage) at 40, died at 67;she married at 15, died at 59. He had first been married to Anne Hyde (12 March 1637 – 31 March 1671) when 27, she was 23.
6 James Louis Sobieski (full name in Polish: Jakub Ludwik Henryk Sobieski; 2 November 1667 – 19 December 1737) and 7 Hedwig Elisabeth of Neuburg (Hedwig Elisabeth Amelia; 18 July 1673 – 10 August 1722) : he married at 23, died at 70;she married at 17, died at 49.

Generation 4 - his great-grandparents:

8 Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649)[a] and 9 Henrietta Maria (French: Henriette Marie; 25 November[1] 1609 – 10 September 1669) : he married at 25, died at 48; she married at 16, died at 59.

10 Alfonso IV d'Este (2 February 1634 – 16 July 1662) and 11 Laura Martinozzi (27 May 1639 – 19 July 1687) : he married at 21, died at 27; she married at 16, died at 48.

12 John III Sobieski (Polish: Jan III Sobieski; Lithuanian: Jonas III Sobieskis; Latin: Ioannes III Sobiscius; 17 August 1629 – 17 June 1696) and 13 Marie Casimire Louise de La Grange d'Arquien (Polish: Maria Kazimiera d’Arquien), known also by the diminutive form "Marysieńka" (28 June 1641, Nevers – 30 January 1716, Blois[1]) : he married at 36, died at 66; she married (second marriage) at 24, died at 74. She had been first married at 16, to Jan Zamoyski (1627–1665), who was 31 at the time, died at 37/38

14 Philip William of Neuburg, Elector Palatine (German: Philipp Wilhelm) (24 November 1615 – 2 September 1690) and 15 Landgravine Elisabeth Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt (Elisabeth Amalie Magdalene; 20 March 1635 – 4 August 1709) : he married (second marriage) at 38, died at 74; she married at 18, died at 74. He had first been married at 27 to Anna Catherine Constance Vasa (Polish: Anna Katarzyna Konstancja Waza; 7 August 1619 in Warsaw – 8 October 1651 in Cologne), who was 23 at the time, died at 32.

Generation 5 - the parents of his great-grandparents:

16 James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) and 17 Anne of Denmark (Danish: Anna; 12 December 1574 – 2 March 1619) : he married at 23, died at 58; she married at 14, died at 44.

18 Henry IV (French: Henri IV; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610) and 19 Marie de' Medici (French: Marie de Médicis, Italian: Maria de' Medici; 26 April 1575 – 3 July 1642) : he married (second marriage) at 47, died at 56; she married at 25, died at 67. He had first been married at 19 to Margaret of Valois (French: Marguerite, 14 May 1553 – 27 March 1615) who was also 19, died at 61.

20 Francesco I d'Este (6 September 1610 – 14 October 1658) and 21 Maria Caterina Farnese (18 February 1615 – 25 July 1646) : he married at 21, died at 48; she married at 16, died at 31.

22 Girolamo Martinozzi [no article, but born 1610] and 23 Laura Margherita Mazzarini (1608 - 9 June 1685) : he married at 24; she married at 26, died at 77.

24 Jakub Sobieski (May 5, 1590 – June 23, 1646) and 25 Teofila Zofia Sobieska, née Daniłowicz (Polish: Daniłowiczówna) (1607 – 27 November 1661) : he married at 37, died at 56; she married at 20, died at 54.

26 Henri Albert de La Grange d'Arquien, Marquis of Arquien (8 September 1613 – 24 May 1707) and 27 Françoise de La Châtre (1613-1648) : he married at 20/21?, died at 93; she married at 20/21?, died at 35.

28 Wolfgang Wilhelm von Pfalz-Neuburg (4 November 1578 in Neuburg an der Donau – 14 September 1653 in Düsseldorf) and 29 Magdalene of Bavaria (4 July 1587 – 25 September 1628) : he married at 35, died at 74; she married at 26, died at 41.

30 George II of Hesse-Darmstadt, German: Georg II von Hessen-Darmstadt (17 March 1605, in Darmstadt – 11 June 1661) and 31 Sophia Eleonore of Saxony (23 November 1609 – 2 June 1671) : he married at 22, died at 56; she married at 18, died at 61.

Generation 6 - the grandparents of his great-grandparents:

32 Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley (7 December 1545 – 10 February 1567) and 33 Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587) : he married at 20, died at 21; she married (second marriage) at 23, died at 44. She had first been married at 16 to Francis II (French: François II; 19 January 1544 – 5 December 1560) who was 14 at the time, died at 16

34 Frederick II (1 July 1534 – 4 April 1588) and 35 Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow (4 September 1557 – 14 October 1631) : he married at 38, died at 53; she married at 14, died at 74.

36 Antoine of Navarre (in English, Anthony; 22 April 1518 – 17 November 1562) and 37 Jeanne d'Albret (Basque: Joana Albretekoa; Occitan: Joana de Labrit; 16 November 1528 – 9 June 1572) : he married at 30, died at 44; she married (second marriage) at 19, died at 43. (She had first been married at 12, see William of Jülich-Cleves-Berge, 114)

38 Francesco I (25 March 1541 – 19 October 1587) was the second Grand Duke of Tuscany and 39 Joanna of Austria (German Johanna von Österreich, Italian Giovanna d'Austria) (24 January 1547 – 11 April 1578) : he married at 24, died at 46; she married at 18, died at 31.

40 Alfonso III d'Este (22 October 1591 – 26 May 1644) was Duke of Modena and Reggio from 1628 to 1629 and married to 41 Isabella of Savoy (11 March 1591 – 28 August 1626) : he married at 17, died at 52; she married at 17, died at 35.

42 Ranuccio I Farnese (28 March 1569 – 5 March 1622) reigned as Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Castro from 1592. His wife was 43 Margherita Aldobrandini (29 March 1588 — 9 August 1646) : he married at 31, died at 52; she married at 12, died at 58.

44 unknown and 45 unknown.

46 Pietro Mazzarino, o Mazzarini (Mazzarino, 1576 – Roma, 4 febbraio 1654) and 47 Ortensia Bufalini (1575 – 1644) : he married at 24/25?, died at 77; she married at 25/26?, died at 69.

48 Marek Sobieski (1549/1550 – 1605) and 49 Jadwiga Snopkowska (c. 1558–1606) : he married at latest at 39/40, died at 55/56; she married at latest c. 30, died at 48.

50 Jan Daniłowicz (1570–1628) was a Polish nobleman, voivode of the Ruthenian Voivodeship and 51 Zofia Żółkiewska (c. 1590–1634) : he married (second marriage) at 35, died at 58; she married at 15, died at 44. He had been first married at ? to Katarzyna Krasicka / Barbara Krasicka??

52 Antoine de La Grange d'Arquien (vers 1560 - 9 mai 1626), ou Antoine de La Grange d'Arquian, gouverneur du Berry, marquis, seigneur d'Arquien and 53 ? (he had three wives, successively) : he married at ?, died at 66; she married at ?

54 ? 55 ?

56 Philipp Ludwig of Neuburg (2 October 1547 – 22 August 1614) was the Duke of Palatinate-Neuburg from 1569 until 1614. His wife was 57 Anna of Cleves (1552–1632) : he married at 27, died at 66; she married at 22, died at 80.

58 William V (29 September 1548 – 7 February 1626), called the Pious, (German: Wilhelm V., der Fromme, Herzog von Bayern) was Duke of Bavaria from 1579 to 1597. His was was 59 Renata of Lorraine (20 April 1544 – 22 May 1602) : he married at 19, died at 77; she married at 23, died at 58.

60 Louis V of Hesse-Darmstadt (German: Ludwig; 24 September 1577 – 27 July 1626) was the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1596 to 1626. His wife was 61 Magdalene of Brandenburg, also Magdalene and Magdalen, (7 January 1582 – 4 May 1616) : he married at 20, died at 48; she married at 16, died at 34.

62 John George I (German: Johann Georg I.) (5 March 1585 – 8 October 1656) was Elector of Saxony from 1611 to 1656. His wife was 63 Magdalene Sibylle of Prussia (31 December 1586 – 12 February 1659) : he married (second marriage) at 22, died at 71; she married at 20, died at 72. He had first been married at 19 to Sibylle Elisabeth of Württemberg (10 April 1584 - 20 January 1606) who was 20 at the time, died at 21.

Generation 7 - the great-grandparents of his great-grandparents:

64 Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox[1] (21 September 1516 – 4 September 1571) and 65 Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox (7 October 1515 – 7 March 1578) : he married at 28, died at 54; she married at 29, died at 62.
66 James V (10 April 1512 – 14 December 1542) and 67 Mary of Guise (French: Marie de Guise; 22 November 1515 – 11 June 1560) : he married (second marriage) at 26, died at 30; she married (second marriage) at 23, died at 44. He had first been married at 14 to Madeleine of France or Madeleine of Valois (10 August 1520 – 7 July 1537) who was 15 at the time, died at 16. She had first been married at 19 to Louis II d'Orléans, duc de Longueville and comte de Dunois (1510 – 9 June 1537) who was 24 at the time, died at 26/27.

68 Christian III (12 August 1503 – 1 January 1559) and 69 Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg (9 July 1511 – 7 October 1571) : he married at 22, died at 55; she married at 14, died at 60.
70 Ulrich III, Duke of Mecklenburg or Ulrich III of Mecklenburg-Güstrow (5 March 1527 – 14 March 1603) 71 Elisabeth of Denmark (14 October 1524 – 15 October 1586) : he married at (at latest) 27, died at 76; she married (second marriage) at (at latest) 30, died at 62. She had first been married at 18 to Magnus III of Mecklenburg (July 4, 1509 in Stargard – January 28, 1550 in Bützow) who was 34 at the time, died at 40.

72 Charles de Bourbon (2 June 1489 – 25 March 1537) and 73 Françoise d'Alençon (1490 – 14 September 1550) : he married at 24, died at 47; she married (second marriage) at 23, died at 60. She had first been married at 15 to François II de Longueville (né 1478/1481 et décédé le 15 février 1513) who was 24/27 at the time, died at 32/35.
74 Henry II of Navarre (18 April 1503 – 25 May 1555) and 75 Marguerite de Navarre (French: Marguerite d'Angoulême, Marguerite d'Alençon; 11 April 1492 – 21 December 1549) : he married at 23, died at 52; she married (second marriage) at 34, died at 57. She had first been married at 17 to Charles IV of Alençon (2 September 1489 in Alençon – 11 April 1525 in Lyon) who was 20 at the time, died at 35.

76 Cosimo I de' Medici (12 June 1519 – 21 April 1574) was the second Duke of Florence from 1537 until 1569, when he became the first Grand Duke of Tuscany, a title he held until his death. He married 77 Eleanor of Toledo (Italian: Eleonora di Toledo, 11 January 1522 – 17 December 1562), born Doña Leonor Álvarez de Toledo y Osorio : he married at 20, died at 54; she married at 17, died at 40.
78 Ferdinand I (Spanish: Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1556, King of Bohemia, Hungary, and Croatia from 1526, and Archduke of Austria from 1521 until his death in 1564. His wife was 79 Anna of Bohemia and Hungary (23 July 1503 – 27 January 1547), sometimes known as Anna Jagellonica, was Queen of Germany, Bohemia, and Hungary and Archduchess of Austria as the wife of King Ferdinand I (later Holy Roman Emperor). He married at 18, died at 61; she married at 17, died at 43.

80 Cesare d'Este (8 October 1562 – 11 December 1628) was Duke of Modena and Reggio from 1597 until his death. His wife was 81 Virginia de' Medici (29 May 1568 – 15 January 1615) : he married at 23, died at 67; she married at 17, died at 46.
82 Charles Emmanuel I (Italian: Carlo Emanuele di Savoia; 12 January 1562 – 26 July 1630), known as the Great, was the Duke of Savoy from 1580 to 1630. His wife was 83 Catalina Micaela of Spain (Spanish: Catalina Micaela de Austria; 10 October 1567 – 6 November 1597) : he married at 22, died at 68; she married at 16, died at 30.

84 Alexander Farnese (Italian: Alessandro Farnese, Spanish: Alejandro Farnesio; 27 August 1545 – 3 December 1592) was an Italian noble and condottiero and later a general of the Spanish army, who was Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Castro from 1586 to 1592, as well as Governor of the Spanish Netherlands from 1578 to 1592. His wife, 85 Infanta Maria of Guimarães (12 August 1538 – 9 July 1577) was a Portuguese infanta, daughter of Infante Duarte, Duke of Guimarães (son of King Manuel I of Portugal), and Isabel of Braganza. He married at 20, died at 47; she married at 27, died at 38.
86 Giovanni Francesco Aldobrandini, I principe di Meldola e Sarsina (Firenze, 11 marzo 1545 – Varasdino, 18 settembre 1601), è stato un generale e diplomatico italiano. Nipote di Clemente VIII, condusse tre spedizioni contro gli Ottomani con l'esercito pontificio nel corso della Lunga Guerra. Si sposò con 87 Olimpia Aldobrandini, principessa di Meldola (28 aprile 1567 – 1637) : he married at 40, died at 56; she married at 18, died at 70.

88 - 91 unknown

92 Girolamo Mazzarino and 93 Margherita de Franchis-Passavera (unknown dates).

94 unknown 95 unknown

96 Jan Sobieski (ok. 1518–1564) and 97 Katarzyna Gdeszyńska (no article). He married at 30, died at 46
98 Jakub Snopkowski 99 Jadwiga Herburt (no article)

100 Stanisław Daniłowicz and 101 Katarzyna Tarło (c.1535 – c.1582) : she died at 47.
102 Stanisław Żółkiewski (1547 – 7 October 1620) was a Polish nobleman of the Lubicz coat of arms, magnate, military commander and a chancellor of the Polish crown of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth,[1] who took part in many campaigns of the Commonwealth and on its southern and eastern borders (article scant on marriage) and 103 Regina Herburt (no article) : he died at 73.

104 Charles de La Grange, seigneur de Montigny and 105 Louise de Rochechouart. (no articles with years)
106 & 107 several options / unknown?

108 - 111 ??

112 Count Palatine Wolfgang of Zweibrücken (German: Pfalzgraf Wolfgang von Zweibrücken; 26 September 1526 – 11 June 1569) was member of the Wittelsbach family of the Counts Palatine and Duke of Zweibrücken from 1532. His wife, 113 Anna of Hesse (26 October 1529, Kassel – 10 July 1591, Meisenheim) was a princess of Hesse by birth and marriage Countess Palatine of Zweibrücken. He married at 19, died at 42 ; she married at 15/16, died at 61.
114 William of Jülich-Cleves-Berge (William I of Cleves, William V of Jülich-Berg) (German: Wilhelm der Reiche; 28 July 1516 – 5 January 1592) was a Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg (1539–1592). His wife, 115 Archduchess Maria of Austria (15 May 1531 – 11 December 1581) was the daughter of Emperor Ferdinand I from the House of Habsburg and Anna Jagiello. He married (second marriage) at 30, died at 75; she married at 15, died at 50. He had first been married at 25 to Jeanne d'Albret who was 12 at the time (for her age, see above).

116 Albert V (German: Albrecht V.) (29 February 1528 – 24 October 1579) was Duke of Bavaria from 1550 until his death. His wife, 117 Anna of Austria (7 July 1528 – 16 October 1590), a member of the Imperial House of Habsburg, was Duchess of Bavaria from 1550 until 1579, by her marriage [him]. He married at 18, died at 51; she married at 17, died at 62.
118 Francis I (French: François Ier de Lorraine) (23 August 1517 – 12 June 1545) was Duke of Lorraine from 1544–1545. His wife, 119 Christina of Denmark (Danish: Christine af Danmark; November 1521 – 10 December 1590) was a Danish princess, the younger surviving daughter of King Christian II of Denmark and Norway and Isabella of Austria. He married at 24, died at 27; she married at 19, died at 69.

120 George I of Hesse-Darmstadt (10 September 1547 – 7 February 1596) was the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1567 to 1596. His wife, 121 Magdalena of Lippe (25 February 1552, Detmold – 26 February 1587, Darmstadt) was a German noblewoman.He married at 24, died at 48; she married at 20, died at 35.
122 John George of Brandenburg (German: Johann Georg) (11 September 1525 – 8 January 1598) was a Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg (1571–1598). His wife was 123 Elisabeth of Anhalt-Zerbst (15 September 1563 – 8 November 1607) : he married (third marriage) at 52, died at 72; she married at 14, died at 44.He had previously been married, first, at 19, to Sophie of Legnica (1525 – 6 February 1546) who was 19/20 at the time, died at 20/21; then, second, at 22, to Sabina of Brandenburg-Ansbach (12 May 1529 – 2 November 1575), who was 17 at the time, died at 46

124 Christian I of Saxony (29 October 1560 in Dresden – 25 September 1591 in Dresden) was Elector of Saxony from 1586 to 1591. He belonged to the Albertine line of the House of Wettin. His wife, 125 Sophie of Brandenburg (6 June 1568 – 7 December 1622) was Electress of Saxony by marriage to [him]. She was regent from 1591 to 1601 during the minority of their son Christian II. He married at 21, died at 30; she married at 13, died at 54.
126 Albert Frederick (German: Albrecht Friedrich; Polish: Albrecht Fryderyk; 7 May 1553 – 28 August 1618) was the Duke of Prussia, from 1568 until his death. His wife was 127 Duchess Marie Eleonore of Cleves (16 June 1550 – 1 June 1608) : he married at 20, died at 65; she married at 22/23, died at 57.

Friday, May 14, 2021

The Answer I Tried to Add


Assorted retorts from yahoo boards and elsewhere : Another Video with Paulogia, Up to &t=634s · Φιλολoγικά/Philologica : The Answer I Tried to Add

11:30 [Sean] "Give me evidence any died for it."

MARTYROLOGIUM ROMANUM : JUNIUS
http://www.liturgialatina.org/martyrologium/16.htm


29 Junii Tertio Kalendas Julii. Luna ...(left out since differring from year to year)
xxvj. C (not sure why this is here)

Romae natalis sanctorum Apostolorum Petri et Pauli, qui eodem anno eodemque die passi sunt, sub Nerone Imperatore. Horum prior, in eadem Urbe, capite ad terram verso cruci affixus, et in Vaticano juxta viam Triumphalem sepultus, totius Orbis veneratione celebratur; posterior autem, gladio animadversus, et via Ostiensi sepultus, pari honore habetur.

I translate: in Rome, the birthday of the Apostles Peter and Paul, who in the same year and on the same day suffered, under Nero Imperator. Of these the former, in the same City, head turned to the earth, fixed to a cross, and buried in Vatican by the Via Triumphalis, is celebrated by the veneration of all the Globe; but the latter, "warned" by the sword, and buried in via Ostiensis, has equal honour.

I did not know that "animadvertere" in Classical Latin "warned" could be used as euphemism for executed.

That's two.

[Found out previous had been delated when trying to post immediately following as an answer = continuation, under it]

Now, the text is in an edition that at its most basic dates from Usuard, like ninth, tenth, century. So, before you trust it, you might want to know the background to Usuard.

Here is my general speculation on how martyrologies started to be compiled in the first place:
https://filolohika.blogspot.com/2019/02/feet-and-martyrologies.html

And here are specifics on the sources of Usuard:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martyrology_of_Usuard

Citing:

_It is preserved to us in innumerable manuscripts, of which Henri Quentin gives a partial list (Martyrologes historiques, 1908, pp. 675–7)._

_The full story of the relation of the texts was unravelled for the first time by Quentin, and the evolution of the early medieval martyrologia culminating in Usuard's work was told by Quentin in the book just cited. Usuard provided what was substantially an abridgement of Ado's Martyrology in a form better adapted for practical liturgical use. In certain points, however, Usuard reverted to a Lyonese recension of Bede's augmented Martyrology, which was attributed to the archdeacon Florus of Lyon._

Now, let's see where we can find earlier sources than Bede, Ado, Florus and their beneficiary Usuard:

_Despite its early date, the Martyrology of 411 does not stand at the head of the eastern martyrological tradition. Rather, it is related to the western tradition as represented in the Martyrologium Hieronymianum.[1] It is a translation of a Greek martyrology of about 362, which was also used as a source for the Martyrologium Hieronymianum.[3] The latest saints included date from the reign of Julian the Apostate (361–363) and may be later additions not found in the original Greek text.[1]_

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martyrology_of_411

[I had cautiously saved both immediately previous and the first comment here before adding both as a new comment and trying to "answer" - technically so, meaningfully continue - it, with following, I found that had been deleted too, but here is this answer too:]

_"Pseudepigraphically attributed to Saint Jerome, the Martyrologium Hieronymianum contains a reference to him derived from the opening chapter of his Life of Malchus (392 AD) where Jerome states his intention to write a history of the saints and martyrs from the apostolic times: "I decided to write [a history, mentioned earlier] from the coming of the savior up to our age, that is, from the apostles, up to the dregs of our time".[1]"_

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martyrologium_Hieronymianum

I disagree with "pseudepigraphically" but of course admit the reference.

[I actually did manage to post it at a second try, after the complaint comment, and am now commenting on, next one to time signature 15:11, see new post]

Schoelcher ...


... n'avait pas raison d'imaginer que l'abolition de l'esclavage requerrait l'athéisme. Ou l'anticléricalisme. Ou la laïcité.

Wilberforce est évoqué dans le livre de Winock ...

Les figures de proue de la gauche depuis 1789 (Français) Broché – 2 mai 2019
de COLLECTIF (Auteur), Michel WINOCK (Rédacteur adjoint)
https://www.amazon.fr/figures-proue-gauche-depuis-1789/dp/2262075999/


... comme étant connu par Victor Schœlcher.

Or, pas seulement que William Wilberforce lui-même était un Anglicane du parti évangéliste - ce n'est pas la Broad Church incroyante, mais la Low Church croyante de manière protestante et fortement dévote - mais un de ses fils, Samuel Wilberforce, va être "l'évêque"* anglicane qui opposa Huxley, s'opposa donc à la théorie de l'évolution, et une de ses filles va épouser un "prêtre"* anglicane qui se convertira à l'Église catholique en 1868. Deux autres** des fils de William, deux des frères de Samuel, sont aussi convertis à l'Église catholique, à savoir Henry William Wilberforce et Robert Isaac Wilberforce.

Par contre, Victor Schœlcher ne va pas juste avoir lutté pour abolir l'exclavage des noirs, il va aussi lutter contre les libertés des familles et de l'église. Je vais citer une page*** du sénat:

« C’est l’école primaire laïque, indique Schoelcher lors d’une conférence devant la Ligue de l’enseignement laïque en 1881, qui, en commençant la culture de l’intelligence, lui donne des bases solides et la fortifie. C’est là que les enfants apprennent à devenir de bons citoyens, connaissant leurs devoirs et leurs droits, capables de juger la valeur politique et surtout morale de ceux qui sollicitent leurs suffrages ».


Au revoir, les libertés des prêtres à enseigner, au revoir, les libertés des familles de choisir leurs écoles!

En 1878, il préside la « Société nationale des amis de l’enfance, ligue pour la propagation du lait maternel ». En 1880, il est vice-président du « Comité supérieur de protection des enfants du premier âge » créé en 1874, premier organisme spécialisé dans les domaines de l’enfance. Il signe, la même année, la proposition de loi de Roussel sur la protection des enfants abandonnés, délaissés ou maltraités pour les soustraire à l’autorité paternelle, proposition qui ne fut adoptée qu’en 1889.
En 1882, il se rend en Angleterre pour étudier la législation et les pratiques à l’égard de la protection publique apportée aux enfants abandonnés.


Au revoir les libertés parentaux, tant qu'il y aura des voisins "concernés" et préjugés contre certains parents. Le mal que l'Angleterre faisait à ses "enfants abandonnés" (et peut-être fait encore) ou qu'on fait en Suède ou Norvège aux nôtres, "délaissés" est donc un des engagements de cette saleté du Grand Orient.

Il s’associe par ailleurs à la préparation de la loi du 19 décembre 1874 qui condamne toute personne faisant travailler de manière périlleuse des enfants âgés de moins de 16 ans ou les obligeant à la mendicité et au vagabondage.


Les Kelly° ont eu de la chance de ne pas être citoyens de la France sous la IIIe République!

Somme toute, Victor Schœlcher se bat contre un esclavage, et celui n'ayant pas vu la métropole, au moins pas pendant l'Ancien Régime, mais pour un autre, plus dur. Les Wilberforce, très pieux, n'ont pas fait ça.

Hans Georg Lundahl
Paris
Lendemain de l'Ascension
14.V.2021

* Le clergé anglicane manque succession apostolique, en général. Certain, de tendance catholisante, ont récupéré par consécrations épiscopales cadeau de l'Église orthodoxe d'Antioche, mais ce n'était pas encore le cas.
** Les deux ont été "prêtres" anglicanes, Henry va rester un laïque après la conversion, Robert va mourir juste avant de recevoir une ordination en vrai prêtre catholique.
*** Sénat : Victor Schoelcher (1804-1893)
https://www.senat.fr/evenement/victor_schoelcher/engagements.html

° The Kelly Family - The Story of an Extraordinary Family
1st of May 2021 | Jeanne Østerbæk Flohr
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-CBBvzUzOjE

Thursday, May 13, 2021

Quelques observations de l'histoire récente, sur un numéro de Marianne


Je commence sur la page 50 du numéro 1170, 30 août - 5 septembre 2019. Ici et de la suite, il va s'agir du dossier sur extrême droite et du dossier sur le socialisme, sauf le dernier paragraphe qui aura affaire de Caroline Fourest [?].*

"aux États fascistes et à leur bilan génocidaire"


Qu'on accepte ou (malgré Gayssot) pas que le bilan du régime National-Socialiste était génocidaire, il y a d'états fascistes dont le bilan ne l'était pas :

  • l'Italie de Mussolini avant la collaboration de Salò
  • l'Autriche de Dollfuss et Schuschnigg (tant qu'il démeurait indépendant du régime NS)**
  • l'Espagne de Franco entre 1939 et 1975
  • le Portugal de Salazar entre 1932 et 1968 (c'était plutôt les anticoloniaux, comme Lumumba qui l'étaient)


et encore des états qui n'étaient pas tout à fait fascistes, mais en avaient des tendances :

  • la Pologne de Józef Piłsudski (pas le moins entre 1926 et 1939, en comptant son successeur Edward Rydz-Śmigły aussi)
  • la Finlande de Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
  • les territoires contrôlés par Piotr Nikolaïevitch Wrangel


On peut ajouter que la Zone libre jusqu'en 1942, tout en étant fasciste, était tolérable pour Juifs et Tsigans. Le camp d'internement de Jargeau était en zone occupée, le Camp de concentration de Montreuil-Bellay l'était aussi, le Camp de Saliers est certes en Zone libre, mais quelques mois juste avant qu'elle devienne Zone sud, également occupée. Un fascisme français, s'il avait pu arriver au pouvoir sans l'occupation, aurait peut-être pu se passer de ces choses là.

Notons que le spectrum qui rejette à la fois socialisme absolu ou liberticide, et libéralisme faisant le chemin pour le capitalisme, comprend :

  • Fascismes
  • National-Socialisme
  • Social-Démocratie / "Parti Socialiste"
  • Démocrates des États-Unis
  • Démocrates Progressistes du Canada
  • CréditSocial au Canada (différent entre Québec et Colombie-Britannique)
  • Chrétiens-Démocrates
  • Royalistes.


Dont je rejette les National-Socialistes, les Social-Démocrates de Suède, les Démocrates et Démocrates-Progressistes et le Crédit social de Colombie-Britannique pour eugénisme et les premiers deux pour d'autres dérives totalitaires aussi.

Notons finalement que la mouvance "sortir de l'hétérosexualité" prétend la famille traditionnelle capitaliste, il serait plus correct de considérer cette mouvance de socialisme extrême. Si "La Société" allait directement payer les mères pour accoucher, "elle" aurait encore davantage de contrôle totalitaire sur mères et enfants que même les Aides Sociales à l'Enfance en Suède et en Norvège.

Hans Georg Lundahl
Paris
Jour de l'Ascension
13.V.2021
(mémoire de St. Robert Bellarmin)

* En fait, l'article n'était pas par Caroline Fourest, ni directement sur elle, mais sur un festival féministe - s'est-elle abstenue de celui-ci? - débuté le 24 septembre 2019 et le compte-rendu ironique (j'avais zappé le second degré en état de fatigue) n'était pas par elle mais par Samuel Piquet, et publié en un numéro ultérieur, fin septembre, je pense le 27 septembre au 3 octobre.
** Vérification que la persécution commence après l'Anschluss:

"Nach dem Anschluss Österreichs 1938 griffen Erlässe Himmlers auch in Österreich. Hier konnte einerseits auf Vorarbeiten der Polizei, wie eine (unvollständige) zentrale Zigeunerregistratur („Zigeuner-Conscription“) als auch auf Gedanken der illegalen NSDAP-Führung, etwa die „Zigeunergedenkschrift“ von Tobias Portschy zurückgegriffen werden."
https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Porajmos#%C3%96sterreich


Notons, les Austrofascistes avaient mis Tobias Portschy en prison, et il le valait bien.

Friday, May 7, 2021

Is Vyasa Proof Anonymous Works Can Easily Get Authors?


Assorted retorts from yahoo boards and elsewhere: Paulogia Starting Christianity Without Resurrection (OR trying To) · Φιλολoγικά/Philologica: Is Vyasa Proof Anonymous Works Can Easily Get Authors?

Some scholars, in the wake of Lorenzo Valla, have doubted the ascribed authorship of this, that or sundry work.

Rhetorica ad Herennium (or whichever it was) is not Cicero. Postilla in libros geneseos is not St. Thomas Aquinas. They are anonymous works which somehow ended up being acribed to Cicero (because he was a very prestigious rhetor or orator), and to St. Thomas Aquinas, because he was a very prestigious theologian.

I am not of this school. But to give it some credit, there is in both cases some discrepancy in style from other, undisputed, more certainly known works, of Cicero and of St. Thomas. For Cicero usually does write a somewhat lavish and definitely lively prose, while Rhetorica ad Herennium (or whichever it was) is dry and technical (it is too old to be by St. Thomas Aquinas who often is dry and technical). And St. Thomas writes a somewhat more classic, somewhat less Italian, Medieval Latin, doesn't quite as much take the "ly" to substantivise glosses or phrases as the author of Postilla in libros geneseos does.

I'd solve the postilla conundrum by stating it was a youth work, from when he was in the Benedictine monastery in the Naples region (Roccasecca rings a bell*). He was not a native Latin speaker, and therefore changed his Latin later in response to more Classical Latin among the Dominicans in Paris. Also, in Paris, he was sworn to uphold Historia scholastica, by Petrus Comestor** which uses a Septuagint chronology***, while postilla uses a Vulgate / Masoretic one. That could have been used to argue, it wasn't his, but it is equally a possible indication it was a youth work by him.

For Rhetorica ad Herennium, it is possible Cicero had a friend Herennius who simply needed a text book° and therefore, for once, Cicero wrote a dry text book.

In either case, I see reasons to doubt the current doubts on the authorship.

This means, I am generally less prone than some to say anonymous books get authors as quick as you can say "Johannulus Filius Roberti".°°

Obviously, this makes me more prone than the average to accept Gospel authorships simply as anciently assigned.

So, is there any kind of fact which would have to make even me admit that authorships get assigned to anonymous works? Well, there is Vyasa, contemporary, or purported such to the events in Mahabharata. A guarantee that Mahabharata is not just roughly historical, but in fact very exact and well documented history.

As I think Mahabharata is roughly historical (again, I accept more of it than the average today Westerner), I still think it's inexact and remade a few times over. This means, I don't believe in Vyasa being author of the text we now have. And being also the contemporary he's purported to be.

There is a difference. Vedic Sanskrit is supposed to have been spoken from 1500 to 600 BC, and Classical Sanskrit from 700 BC to 1350 AD. But more importantly, all the earlier parts are supposed to have been transmitted orally, since oldest known and deciphered writing in India are the Brahmi script and Kharosthi, which arose around the time of Pericles. The action in Mahabharata includes the death of Krishna, dated to 3102 BC. While the Indus script would perhaps qualify (if the carbon dates match real dates, which I contest), it is in an unknown language, undeciphered and the texts we have are so short as to be included in seals - very much too short for texts like Mahabharata or even a short book in the Bible. Even a normal average verse in the Bible would be too long for the texts we have in Harappan.

This means, there is more room for doubt than with Cicero or St. Thomas (both are known to be roughly contemporary at least to the two disputed texts that I mentioned). And therefore obviously also more room of doubt than with the Gospellers. It's more comparable to whether Dares Phrygius really wrote Daretis Phrygii de excidio Trojae historia (or rather the original of which this is the Latin translation, if any such existed). Bc, "our" Dares sometimes differs from Homer, and placing Dares as a contemporary to the events (it seems Homer mentioned one such in Iliad song 5), is a way of pretending to have ultimate genuinity in a work only known more than thousand years after purported events.

Ultimately, Dares may be genuine, while any Christian would dispute genuinity of Vyasa, since the timeline contradicts that of Biblical history, but either of them is a very far cry even from Herennian Rhetoric or Postilla in libros geneseos, and let alone from the four Gospels, of which we have surviving fragments in less than 100 years after events, and in which author assignments are within 120 years from earliest of them being written, if correct.

Hans Georg Lundahl
Paris
St. Stanislas of Cracow
7.V.2021

* But it could be the castle he was born in. ** Literally : Peter the Eater. *** Without the second Cainan. ° He might have been teaching rhetoric and have wanted to refer to the greatest rhetor's knowledge, be sure not to miss anything. Quintilian's Institutiones Oratoriae would have done the job, but wasn't around yet. °° That's a rough translation of Jack Robinson.

Thursday, May 6, 2021

On se demande pourquoi la gauche en France ait été tellement anticlérical


Je viens d'entamer:

Les figures de proue de la gauche depuis 1789 (Français) Broché – 2 mai 2019
de COLLECTIF (Auteur), Michel WINOCK (Rédacteur adjoint)
https://www.amazon.fr/figures-proue-gauche-depuis-1789/dp/2262075999/


En Rivarol, je viens de reconfirmer l'impression que j'avais en lisant l'article sur Saint-Simon : Charles Maurras et son Action Française forment un Saint-Simonisme de droite. Même glorification des "industriels" comme les indispensables, entre autres.

Mais ça revient et ça revient comme un fil rouge, à part Maurras : ces gens là ont quasi tous détesté l'église. Blanqui - j'aurais préféré qu'un certain Boulevard soit resté Saint-Jacques - est un des gens qui imposent l'athéisme comme norme dans un certain type de loges (je parie Grand Orient), Michelet aurait pu être un national-libéral ou chrétien-social à part sa haine ou son mépris envers le Christianisme traditionnel (il préférait Rénaissance, Réforme, Lumières, Libéralisme, si ma mémoire ne me trompe pas), Proudhon avait au moins la clarté d'esprit (et d'anti-marxisme) de ne pas préférer le dogmatisme de Luther à celui de l'Église catholique.

Peut-être le gallicanisme avait été trop antipopulaire? Trop "on s'en foût des condamnés à mort" ... un colloque à l'Université d'Avignon avait dit (un des papers) que pour un condamné à mort avant la Révolution, confession, oui, mais pas de communion. Ce seront les Ultramontains qui réhabilitent le droit des condamnés à mort de communier, après confession. Étienne d'Orves en aura été heureux.

Hans Georg Lundahl
Paris
Miracle de St. Jean
6.V.2021

Romae sancti Joannis, Apostoli et Evangelistae, ante Portam Latinam; qui, ab Epheso, jussu Domitiani, vinctus Romam est perductus, et, judicante Senatu, ante eamdem portam in olei ferventis dolium missus, exivit inde purior et vegetior quam intravit.