Friday, May 31, 2024

Levels of Stonehenge

Stonehenge and Göbekli Tepe? · Levels of Stonehenge

I once redated Stonehenge, from the known carbon dates with my then tables. I'm remaking it with newer ones. First the wikipedia article:

I'll attach extracts of the article to the dates, so we know what's what:

Before the monument (from 8000 BC)

Archaeologists have found four, or possibly five, large Mesolithic postholes (one may have been a natural tree throw), which date to around 8000 BC, beneath the nearby old tourist car-park in use until 2013. These held pine posts around two feet six inches (0.75 m) in diameter, which were erected and eventually rotted in situ. ...

Salisbury Plain was then still wooded, but, 4,000 years later, during the earlier Neolithic, people built a causewayed enclosure at Robin Hood's Ball, and long barrow tombs in the surrounding landscape. ...

In approximately 3500 BC, a Stonehenge Cursus was built 2,300 feet (700 m) north of the site as the first farmers began to clear the trees and develop the area. ...

Stonehenge 1 (c. 3100 BC)

The first monument consisted of a circular bank and ditch enclosure made of Late Cretaceous (Santonian Age) Seaford chalk, measuring about 360 feet (110 m) in diameter, with a large entrance to the north east and a smaller one to the south. It stood in open grassland on a slightly sloping spot. ...

Stonehenge 2 (c. 2900 BC)

The second phase of construction occurred approximately between 2900 and 2600 BC. The number of postholes dating to the early third millennium BC suggests that some form of timber structure was built within the enclosure during this period. ....
 Stonehenge 3 I (c. 2600 BC)

Archaeological excavation has indicated that around 2600 BC, the builders abandoned timber in favour of stone and dug two concentric arrays of holes (the Q and R Holes) in the centre of the site ...

Stonehenge 3 II (2600 BC to 2400 BC)

During the next major phase of activity, 30 enormous Oligocene–Miocene sarsen stones (shown grey on the plan) were brought to the site. They came from a quarry around 16 miles (26 km) north of Stonehenge, in West Woods, Wiltshire.[37] The stones were dressed and fashioned with mortise and tenon joints before 30 sarsens were erected as a 108-foot (33 m) diameter circle of standing stones, with a ring of 30 lintel stones resting on top. ...

Stonehenge 3 III (2400 BC to 2280 BC)

Later in the Bronze Age, although the exact details of activities during this period are still unclear, the bluestones appear to have been re-erected. They were placed within the outer sarsen circle and may have been trimmed in some way. Like the sarsens, a few have timber-working style cuts in them suggesting that, during this phase, they may have been linked with lintels and were part of a larger structure.

Stonehenge 3 IV (2280 BC to 1930 BC)

This phase saw further rearrangement of the bluestones. They were arranged in a circle between the two rings of sarsens and in an oval at the centre of the inner ring. ...

Stonehenge 3 V (1930 BC to 1600 BC)

Soon afterwards, the northeastern section of the Phase 3 IV bluestone circle was removed, creating a horseshoe-shaped setting (the Bluestone Horseshoe) which mirrored the shape of the central sarsen Trilithons. This phase is contemporary with the Seahenge site in Norfolk.

Now for the dates, when a simple equation is given without any explanation, it is because the carbon date is already calibrated to an exact Biblical (and real) date, either as per primary nodes or by my intercalations:

"8000 BC" = 2556 BC

"4000 BC" = 2029 BC

78.796 pmC
1970 + 2029 = 3999

"3500 BC" = 1935 BC

"3100 BC" = 1801 BC

"2900 BC" ~ 1740 BC

1740 BC
86.777125 pmC
1150 + 1740 = 2890 BC
 "2600 BC" = 1678 BC

"2400 BC" = 1655 BC

"2280 BC" = 1641 BC

1641 BC
92.561 pmC
640 + 1641 = 2281 BC

"1930 BC" = 1599 BC

1599 BC
96.1346 pmC
330 + 1599 = 1929 BC

"1600 BC" = 1487 BC

1487 BC
98.7395 pmC
110 + 1487 = 1597 BC

When extra explanations are given, I have been obliged to find a middle year and a middle value of the pmC between two of the items in my table. Not necessarily the unweighted medium value of the two. The already extant real dates with carbon dates are in this article, in French:

New blog on the kid : Mes plus récentes tables de carbone 14

Hans Georg Lundahl
Queenship of the Blessed Virgin Mary

Festum beatae Mariae Virginis Reginae.

1 comment:

Hans Georg Lundahl said...

Carbon dated time span = 6400 years.
Real time span = 1069 years.

For Stonhenge 1 to 3.

Carbon dated time span = 1500 years.
Real time span = 314 years.

For Stonehenge 3 only.

Carbon dated time span = 1000 years.
Real time span = 253 years.