Tuesday, March 21, 2017

Prehistory of France


Assorted retorts from yahoo boards and elsewhere : ... on Genevieve von Petzinger's 32 late palaeolithic signs · ... on Genevieve von Petzinger's view on human religion and symbolic behaviour · Φιλολoγικά/Philologica : Prehistory of France

Prehistoric and Iron Age France - all dates are BC
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prehistory_of_France#Timeline


I am presuming that all dates are carbon dated in some fashion, since my reduced chronology table is specific to carbon dating.

Dates from timeline vastly earlier than 40,000 BC are not carbon dated and therefore do not reduce in the same manner, which is why their reduction to a Biblical chronology is a separate problem, not treated here, probably not much by me.

However, as to foundings of Massilia and Antibes, I think I might take these as actually being historical dates?

Using the Biblical Timeline I see as most correct.

Around Five Thousand Years Ago, There was a World Wide Flood?
http://creavsevolu.blogspot.fr/2017/03/around-five-thousand-years-ago-there.html


France
40,000
Laufen interglacial. Arrival of first modern humans (Cro-Magnons) in Europe.
35,000 ?
Würm IIIa. Châtelperronian culture.

Recalibration levels
to Biblical according to St Jerome's timeline are marked by Roman Numerals.

I 2957 BC
2.142 pmc, + 31 800 years, 34757 BC

France
35,000 ?
Würm IIIa. Châtelperronian culture.
33,000
Mask of la Roche-Cotard, a Mousterian artefact.
32,000
Aurignacian culture.
30,000
First statuettes and engravings in France. Disappearance of Neanderthals.
28,000
Arcy interglacial.
27,500
Würm IIIb.
25,000
Paudorf interglacial.
23,000
Würm IIIc.
18,000
End of Würm glaciation.
18,692
Beginning of Solutrean culture.
16,000
Cold spell (Oldest Dryas).
15,000
Magdalenian culture.
15,300
Lascaux.
14,500
Middle Magdalenian. Bølling Oscillation.
14,100
Cold spell (Older Dryas).

II 2803 BC
25.609 pmc, + 11 250 years, 14053 BC

France
14,000
Allerød Oscillation.
13,500
Upper Magdalenian.
13,000
Hamburg culture
10,300
Cold spell (Younger Dryas).

III 2650 BC
40.195 pmc, + 7550 years, 10200 BC

France
9500
Beginning of Holocene.

Biblical
and Oriental
Low feature in Göbekli Tepe
9559 BP, 7609 BC

IV 2496 BC
54.721 pmc, + 5000 years, 7496 BC

France
7000
Domestication of the sheep.
6900
Domestication of the dog.

Biblical
and Oriental
High Feature in Göbekli Tepe
8430 BP, 6480 BC

V 2343 BC
63.751 pmc, + 3700 years, 6043 BC
VI 2189 BC
72.689 pmc, + 2650 years, 4839 BC

France
4800
Appearance of Linear Pottery culture in France.
4650
Oldest neolithic village in France, Courthézon in the Vaucluse.

VII 2036 BC
78.256 pmc, + 2050 years, 4086 BC

Biblical
and Oriental
Ur of Woolley starts
a little before Birth of Abraham

France
4000
Neolithic Chasséen culture village of Bercy.
3610
Appearance of first megaliths in France.
3430
Chasséen culture village of Saint-Michel du Touch near Toulouse.
3430
Appearance of Rössen culture at Baume de Gonvilla in Haute-Saône.

Biblical
and Oriental
Narmer's raw carbon date
before 3332, around Birth of Isaac

VIII 1882 BC
83.844 pmc, + 1450 years, 3332 BC

France
3250
Expansion of Chasséen culture in the south of France, from the Lot to the Vaucluse.
3190
Chasséen culture in Calvados.

IX 1728 BC
87.316 pmc, + 1100 years, 2828 BC

Biblical
and Oriental
Date of Joseph
is close to a raw carbon date of Djoser

France
2530
Chasséen culture in Pas-de-Calais.
2450
End of Chasséen culture in Eure-et-Loir.
2400
End of Chasséen culture in Saint-Mitre (in Reillanne, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence).

X 1575 BC
90.665 pmc, + 810 years, 2385 BC

Biblical
and Oriental
Exodus (1510 BC)
would carbon date between 2385 and 2041, if we had a trace of it.

France
2300
Village at Ponteau (in Martigues, Provence) of the Beaker culture.

XI 1421 BC
92.752 pmc, + 620 years, 2041 BC

France
1800
Beginning of Bronze Age in France.

XII 1268 BC
94.992 pmc, + 430 years, 1698 BC

Biblical
and Oriental
Trojan War Date 1190 BC
falls between 1114 and 1268 BC, which means the carbon date would be between 1424 and 1698 BC. Could we be dealing with Troy V?

XIII 1114 BC
96.376 pmc, + 310 years, 1424 BC

Biblical
and Oriental
Both Troy dates (VIh and VIIa)
from Hisarlik fall between 961 BC and 1114 BC, since carbon dated between 1171 BC and 1424 BC.

XIV 961 BC
97.486 pmc, + 210 years, 1171 BC
XV 807 BC
98.188 pmc, + 150 years, 957 BC

France
800
Appearance in France, via the Rhine and the Moselle, and expanding into Champagne and Bourgogne of the Urnfield culture.
725
Beginning of Hallstatt culture.
680 (historic date?)
Founding of Antibes, the first Greek colony in France.

XVI 654 BC
99.298 pmc, + 60 years, 714 BC

France
680 (carbon date?)
Founding of Antibes, the first Greek colony in France.
600
Founding of Massalia (future Marseille) by the Greeks from the Ionian city of Phocaea[1].

XVII 500 BC
100 pmc, no extra years, 500 BC

France
450
The Celts of la Tène appear in Champagne. They expand to the Garonne, forming what will come to be called the Gaul civilization.


As to the earliest Cro-Magnon at 40,000 BC, I take these to have been Pre-Flood men of same race as Noah's family. If Noah had sons who lived and died before those born when he was 500 years old, from which we descend, these sons of Noah could have been among the Neanderthals, another pre-Flood race, and for that matter among Homines Antecessores, also a Pre-Flood race, and Heidelbergenses. But these latter are not carbon dated, routinely, since presumed too old.

It can be thanks to them that Japheth could marry someone who was partly Neanderthal, if this conjecture of mine is correct. Since Neanderthals were if so Europeans before the Flood, Noah gave Europe to Japhethians as inheriting from their ancestors.

Hans Georg Lundahl
Nanterre UL
St Benedict
and Tuseday after
III Lord's Day in Lent
21.III.2017

Wednesday, March 15, 2017

Very Early Contact?




From: blog UROPI : Proto-Indeuropan (PIE), Uropi id moderni lingas - et les langues modernes -and modern languages
http://uropi.canalblog.com/archives/2013/11/07/28380100.html


Yesterday or today can count as PI day (3.14 and 3.15 or 314:100 and 315:100 being limit values surrounding in two decimal precision the non-showable precise value of pi, however, 3.14 is the closer of the two).

Some linguist made a pun and made it PIE day ... as not in apple pie or mince meat pie but Proto-Indo-European ...

Now, there is one group which has never been seen as documented in writing or oral performance. Proto-Indo-European.

There are three of four or five groups which contributed to the theory which had very early contact : Italic (with Latin as well known example), Celtic (also marked close to Italic on diagram), Germanic (other branching, itself closer to Baltic and Slavic which are closer to each other than to it).

The fourth is Greek, which had later (but still early) contact with Italic.

The fifth is Indic (with Sanscrit).

So, four out of five main contributors to the theory of a single proto-language are more similar than they should be purely out of origin, due to early contact.

If Linear A turns out to be related to Indic or Iranian or both, that would be the fifth group of the original theory which had "very early contact".

And in the top branching of the diagram, closest to PIE, non attested, is Anatolian (attested with Nesili/Hittite, with Luwian and with a few more).

That is in the right position to have also had very early contact with ... the Italic and Greek early but not very early contact.

So, what if IE group is a Sprachbund?

Anatolian of some kind (Nesili or Luwian or Lydian etc) acting as a catalyst for Indo-Europeanisation, at least in some main features and the other in the "early contact" or "very early contact" contributing less important common or half common features?

This is a theory I have been brooding on, and so far I have had no refutation, except mostly that this is not the theory of the accepted expert linguists.

It was, I suppose, the theory of one, namely Trubetskoy, and even if this had not been the case, it would still be a valid theory if explaining things.

It has been met with two main objections:

  • existence of regular sound correspondences, as would be expected with a common background changing in different ways (Latin to Romance model of language development)
  • reluctance of languages to borrow base vocabulary and grammatical features.


And I have answers to both.

"existence of regular sound correspondences"

  • regularity is not absolute;

  • tentatives to make it so end up with a more and more contrived proto-language, which begins to sound like Klingon;

  • regularity may also result from "backformations" in the case of words taking the other route than the typical one : if I know that Swedish kona - dialectal for kvinna, related to Queen and to γυνη as well as to Celtic bean, fenyw/benyw - in Danish becomes "kone", and hear Danish "pige", girl, I might take the word and in Swedish change it to "piga" or even "pika" (Norwegian has pike). As it happens, Swedish has the word piga, and in a slightly different meaning, maidservant. Changing Danish -e to Swedish -a is a backformation, compared to the Danish change from -a to -e.

  • Regularity may also result from having a common text with dialectally different variations on the sound of letters, even possible with alphabetic script, and certainly possible with cuneiform and hieroglyphic syllabaries, since there the set values of a given glyph may change, especially if they don't look like devanagari, with consonant given and vowels other than short a added, but like early Aegean and Anatolian ones.


"reluctance of languages to borrow base vocabulary and grammatical features"

  • ignorant of Balkan linguistics, where at least favouring of certain and disappearance of other forms in abstract grammar grids are made by bilingual speakers' relations to other languages;

  • ignores that IE shares grammatical features with two neighbouring language families, Semitic and Fenno-Ugrian (Ablaut is a Semitic trait, endings for first and second persons are very clearly related in IE and in Finnish, the typologically rare double past, either imperfect or perfect, in IE, or in most IE, could be from Semitic tenses being more about perfective and imperfective, while Fenno-Ugrian is more about present versus past, Germanic shares the latter type with Fenno-Ugrian, and shares Grimm or part of it with Hungarian and Etruscan), the 8 case system is of complexity intermediate between Semitic 3 case and Fenno-Ugrian 15 case systems;

  • and of course also ignores the Tsiganic or Gypsy languages, the various languages known as Romani : caló is spoken with Spanish-Portuguese type grammar, tattar-Romani with Scandinavian grammar, "Shelta shares its main syntactic features with Hiberno-English and the majority of its morphological features such as -s plurals and past tense markers." (from article). The latter remark is true for Scandinavian Romani too, like noun plurals in -(V)r, like verb presents, all persons, -(V)r, like verb pasts in -(a/e)de and I think the same applies to Caló ... yes, and here is another similarity between Caló and Tattarspråk : "Many Caló terms have been borrowed in Spanish (especially as slangisms and colloquialisms), often through Flamenco lyrics and criminal jargon (germanía)." (Also from its article).


I have even played with the thought that the main catalyst for indo-europeanisation of included groups may have been a language used like Romani. If the common word for grain is not specific between wheat and barley and rye, while IE commonalities are specific about horses, it might be because wheat was not one usual article such a far range trading people usually trasnferred, but horses were their own thing.

Other languages affacted by theirs would also have become IE language groups, but retain their own words for relevant cereals.

Hans Georg Lundahl
Nanterre UL
Wednesday after
II Lord's Day in Lent
15.III.2017

PS, I forgot the very obvious lacunae of IE commonalities in very common base vocabulary, hands, heads, colours, wheat and rye and so on are not commonalities, and neither is iron (iron, Eisen, jern is a Germanic commonality with Celtic Houarn, Haearn, Iarann, but not with Ferrum in Latin and Romance, unless Celtic were borrowed from a form of it changing f to h or zero, not with Geležis and Żelazo, not with Σίδηρος, and on Fenno-Ugrian side, Vas and Raud are unlike, the latter however borrowed perhaps from proto-Germanic or early Germanic, like proto-Nordic for red).

PPS, in Danish, I suppose "pige" is regular. If Norwegian "pike" is regular, the g in Swedish "piga" must be from a dialect of Danish or a dialect close to Danish. If the g in Swedish "piga" is regular, the k in Norwegian "pike" must be a backformation. Nw/Sw lök/løk Da løg. Da pige, Nw pike. The sound change has given rise to a sound correspondence and the sound correspondence contributes to words changing sound the other way, what linguists now call a backformation. Once it was simply called a sound correspondence.

Friday, March 10, 2017

What does it mean when a language is said to go extinct?


Wikipedia has a lot of categories of language extinction. By century or by millennium.

You are free to either recite the list solemnly or skim over it. I am not your classroom teacher, and I don't sit behind a camera checking you out. You do as you please.

  • "Languages extinct in the 21st century"

    Ruga language, Sambe language.

    And even some more, like a dialect of Lakotan.

  • "Languages extinct in the 20th century"

    A-Pucikwar language, Aka-Cari language, Aka-Kede language, Aka-Kol language, Akar-Bale language, Oko-Juwoi language, Asa language, Atakapa language, and Auregnais.

    Butler English.

    Cacaopera language, Catawba language, Chagatai language, Chicomuceltec language, Cochimí language, Cruzeño language, and Culle language.

    Damakawa language and Dzubukua.

    Sirenik Eskimo language.

    ǃGãǃne language.

    Ineseño language, Ingain language, and Island Chumash language.

    Jangil and Jersey Dutch.

    Kamakan language, Kamassian language, Kemi Sami language, Kilit dialect, Kipea language, and Kyakhta Russian–Chinese Pidgin.

    Lipan language.

    Marawan language, Miami-Illinois language, Miluk language, and Mpra language.

    Obispeño language.

    Piro Pueblo language, Portugis language, Purisimeño language, Sened language, Sensi language, and Slovincian language.

    Tepecano language, Tequiraca language, Tongva language, and Tsetsaut language.

    Ventureño language.

    Wanyi language.

    ǀXam language. I also so a note it had gone extinct in the 21:st century.

    Yaygir language, Yugh language, Yuki language, and Yuri language (of the Amazon river).

  • "Languages extinct in the 19th century"

    Abipón language (which was spoken by a people in South America, as I know from Karl May, without even looking at the article), Adai language, Assan language, and Awabakal language.

    Boro language (of Ghana) and Broken Slavey.

    Coroado Puri language.

    Esselen language.

    Jeikó language.

    Kott language.

    Massachusett language, Mator language, and Mediterranean Lingua Franca.

    Nauo language, Niuatoputapu language, and Nuenonne language.

    Paredarerme language, Peerapper language, Port Sorell language, and Purí language.

    Russenorsk.

    Sandy River Valley Sign Language, Siraya language, Strand Frisian, and to continue on T: Taita Cushitic languages, Tommeginne language, and Toogee language.

    Vanji language.

    West Greenlandic Pidgin.

    Yokohama Pidgin Japanese and Yurats language.

    Note there was more than one auxiliary language which went extinct in the very century where Zamenhoff hoped to found one : Yokohama Pidgin Japanese, West Greenlandic Pidgin, Mediterranean Lingua Franca and possibly Broken Slavey too were all in use as auxiliary languages, helping communication, not by idealist clubs by people who generously renounce using English or French or Spanish or Russian or whatever suits, but by people who had no other language in common.

    This is not doubt due to the fact of bettered language education in many parts - where it is not the fact or a people losing its language, but in thesee three cases, the main factor would be Eskimos learning Danish better, Japanese learning English better, Maghrebin and other Mediterranean Orientals learning French better - in some cases because they had to.

    The same linguists who improved knowledge of well used languages also preserved memories of dying and dead ones, including the no longer needed auxiliary languages, of these three no doubt the Mediterranean Lingua Franca was the most venerable one. It had been in use since the Crusades.

  • "Languages extinct in the 18th century"

    Algonquian–Basque pidgin, Apalachee language, and Arin language.

    However, with Algonquian-Basque Pidgin, it is possible at least one of those using the help language, and probably at least the Basques of that region, lost theirs.

    Calusa language, Caranqui language, Carolina Algonquian language, Chané language, Ch’olti’ language, Chuvan language, and Cuman language.

    Eiderstedt Frisian.

    Kainuu Sami language.

    Labrador Inuit Pidgin French, Língua Geral of São Paulo, and Loup language.

    Mitchigamea.

    Old Prussian language and Omok language.

    Pericú language, Plateau Sign Language, Polabian language, Powhatan language, Pumpokol language, and Puquina language.

    Sissipahaw, Solano language, and Susquehannock language.

    Tawasa language and Timucua language.

    Waikuri language and Wursten Frisian.

    While Wursten Frisian may have died as long agao as Waikuri, it is still not as dead, because other dialects of Frisian live one.

  • "Languages extinct in the 17th century"

    Allentiac language and Andalusian Arabic.

    Basque–Icelandic pidgin. Which could have become extinct due to lessened trade between a now Protestant Iceland and Spain and France - or due to ... I checked : Icelanders must have become better at French and Spanish, since the mixture was between Basque and these two with some Dutch. It is possible non-Icelanders also used it, but the Icelanders were the only ones noting it down on papers preserved to us. It does not include Icelandic words, but an Icelandic translation.

    Cazcan language and Coptic language.

    Early Modern English, Egyptian language (which I already said, since Coptic and Egyptian are the same), Erie language, and Etchemin language.

    Guanche language.

    Middle Odia and Millcayac language.

    Narragansett language.

    Pidgin Delaware.

    Saukiog, Scahentoarrhonon and Sudovian language.

    Let's be precise, Sudovian is not a Slavonic language as you might imagine, it is a Baltic one, close to Old Prussian.

    Yao language (Trinidad)

  • "Languages extinct in the 16th century"

    Ciguayo language and Curonian language.

    Guanahatabey language.

    Laurentian language.

    Macorix language.

    Renaissance Latin !

    Taíno language and Tangut language.

  • "Languages extinct in the 15th century"

    Anglo-Norman language.

    Greenlandic Norse.

    Jassic dialect.

    Medieval Greek ! and Medieval Latin !

    Middle English and Middle Turkic languages.

  • "Languages extinct in the 14th century"

    Abahattha.

    Early Middle Odia.

    Old Norse and Old West Norse.

    Zarphatic language.

  • "Languages extinct in the 13th century"

    Daylami language.

    Old English.

    Pyu language (of Burma).

  • "Languages extinct in the 12th century"

    Old Odia and Pecheneg language.

  • "Languages extinct in the 11th century"

    Early West Saxon and Khwarezmian language.

  • "Languages extinct in the 10th century"

    Himyaritic language and Middle Indo-Aryan languages.

  • "Languages extinct in the 9th century"

    Tocharian languages and Old Irish.

  • "Languages extinct in the 8th century"

    Caucasian Albanian language.

    Old Tamil language.

    Proto-Norse language.

    Western Brittonic languages.

  • "Languages extinct in the 7th century"

    Arcadocypriot Greek.

    British Latin.

    Buyeo language.

  • "Languages extinct in the 6th century"

    Ancient Cappadocian language.

    Ancient Greek (sic!) and Late Latin (sic!)

  • "Languages extinct in the 5th century"

    Median language.

    Phoenician language or Punic language or, if two different things, both.

    Thracian language. To which we do not trace Albanian or Bulgarian or Romanian, even if we would like to.

  • "Languages extinct in the 4th century"

    Meroitic language and Mishnaic Hebrew.

  • "Languages extinct in the 3rd century"

    Aramaic of Hatra.

    Classical Latin (sic!)

    Old Aramaic language.

    Rhaetian language.

  • "Languages extinct in the 2nd century"

    Armazic language, but that is only one language not two or more languages.

  • "Languages extinct in the 1st century"

    Biblical Hebrew and Minaean language.

  • "Languages extinct in the 1st century BC"

    Doric Greek.

    Etruscan language.

    Ligurian language (ancient).

    Messapian language.

    Umbrian language, Venetic language and Vestinian language.

    Did I count U with V? Yes, back then it was the same letter!

  • "Languages extinct in the 3rd century BC"

    Aeolic Greek and Attic Greek.

    Carian language and Eteocretan language.

    Oh, more Greek, namely Ionic Greek.

    Late Biblical Hebrew.

    This is however a matter of definition, it means the last book we have in Hebrew is from this century if it is in the Bible - and if it is in Mishna, it counts as Mishnaic Hebrew instead of as Biblical, even late Biblical.

  • "Languages extinct in the 4th century BC"

    Ancient Macedonian language.

    It seems, Alexander the Great destroyed his own dialect as promptly as non-Koiné versions of Greek.

    Eteocypriot language and Sicani.

  • "Languages extinct in the 5th century BC"

    Ammonite language.

    Could also be the case for Moabite language, which is not noted by century but is in this millennium. The same is true of the Edomite language which like Ammonite and Moabite are very close to Hebrew.

    Camunic also destroyed (or at least disused) in the first millennium BC, but later. And it is not related to Hebrew, as far as we know. Its alphabet has similarities to runes, and was in use as late as 50 BC (within the lifetime of Odin).

  • "Languages extinct in the 6th century BC"

    Lemnian language.

    Archaic Biblical Hebrew and Standard Biblical Hebrew. But, as we know, other versions of Hebrew persisted some time.

  • "Languages extinct in the 8th century BC"

    Akkadian.

    For centuries, Akkadian was the native language in Mesopotamian nations such as Assyria and Babylonia. Because of the might of various Mesopotamian empires, such as the Akkadian Empire, Old Assyrian Empire, Babylonian Empire, and Middle Assyrian Empire, Akkadian became the lingua franca of much of the Ancient Near East. However, it began to decline during the Neo-Assyrian Empire around the 8th century BC, being marginalized by Aramaic during the reign of Tiglath-pileser III. By the Hellenistic period, the language was largely confined to scholars and priests working in temples in Assyria and Babylonia. The last known Akkadian cuneiform document dates from the 1st century AD.


  • "Languages extinct in the 9th century BC"

    Philistine language

  • "Languages extinct in the 11th century BC"

    Cypro-Minoan syllabary.

    Hurrian language.

  • "Languages extinct in the 12th century BC"

    Mycenaean Greek.

  • "Languages extinct in the 13th century BC"

    Hittite language

  • "Languages extinct in the 14th century BC"

    Palaic language

  • "Languages extinct in the 20th century BC"

    Old Egyptian language

  • "Languages extinct in the 2nd millennium BC"

    Amorite language.

    Hattic language.

    Minoan language.

    Sumerian language Note :

    Akkadian gradually replaced Sumerian as a spoken language around 2000 BC (the exact dating being a matter of debate),[5] but Sumerian continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific language in Mesopotamia until the 1st century AD.


  • "Languages extinct in the 3rd millennium BC"

    Elamite language.


And languages gone extinct prior to Elamite are not noted, because not attested before going extinct.

So, if Sumerian language went extinct in the second millennium BC, could Odin in the 1:st Century BC have known it? Or if Akkadian went extinct 8 centuries before he lived, could he have known it?

As a native speaker, raised in Sumerian or Akkadian from his cradle, or as speaking to native speakers, not so. Not any more than we could know Classical or Medieval Latin that way.

But he could have known Sumerian, like we can know Classical or nearly same thing Medieval Latin. As a language he had studied. Or Koiné, a k a Ancient Greek, a k a Medieval Greek, a k a Katharévousa, also known as not yet extinct.

So, when did Sumerian and Etruscan go extinct again? As native languages, second millennium BC and 1:st C AD. But as learned languages, in each case later.

I think it was in St Jerome's or St Augustine's time, or even St Gregory's that the last Haruspex tried to chant his chants in Etruscan and was laughed at.

But Etruscan went extinct as a native language and Akkadian and Sumerian as even learned languages, in 1:st Century. Because that was the Century of Christ? Because those were languages of idolatry.

Christ had the power to end idolatries of very relevant matter of disgust to the Hebrews. Because He was the true Christ. And remains so.

Eternally.

Hans Georg Lundahl
Nanterre UL
Ember Friday
of Lent
10.III.2017

Wednesday, March 8, 2017

Archaeology from Flood to Abraham, Revisiting Earlier Articles.


Based on same table as previous:

Flood to Abraham, St Jerome A
http://creavsevolu.blogspot.fr/2017/03/flood-to-abraham-st-jerome-a.html


Plus a few older archaeology articles of mine, to which I link at first occurrence.

A. Habermehl's
Music Instruments
Divje Babe bone flute (Turk & Dimkaroski 2011)
50,000 BP (pre-Flood)

The Flood 2957 BC
(St Jerome)
1.636 %, + 34 000 years, 36 957 BC

A. Habermehl's
Music Instruments
Hohle Fels bone flute (Conard et al. 2009)
35,000 BP

Αμερική
Early movement into NW Beringia 30,050 BC
Αμερική
Last Glacial Maximum begins 26,050 BC
Αμερική
East Beringia terminus post quem 24,050 BC
Αμερική
Mal'ta Siberia genome 22,050 BC
Αμερική
Solutrean Culture begins (b) 21,550 BC
Αμερική
Earliest Solutrean tools (a) 19,050 BC

2888 BC
19.78 pmc, 13 400 years +, 16 288 BC

Αμερική
East Beringia terminus ante quem 16,050 BC
Last Glacial Maximum ends 16,050 BC

Αμερική
Latest Solutrean tools (a + b) 15,050 BC
Deglaciation of Pacific, ante quem 15,050 BC

Αμερική
Monte Verde, Chile 12,650 BC

2820 BC
33.849 pmc, 8950 years +, 11 770 BC

Αμερική
Icefree corridor between Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets, tpq 11,550 BC

Αμερική
Clovis Culture begins (b) 11,350 BC

Αμερική
Clovis Culture begins (a) 11,050 BC

Αμερική
Anzick-1 10,757 - 10,606 BC

Αμερική
Clovis Culture ends (b) 10,850 BC

Αμερική
Clovis Culture ends (a) 10,650 BC

C-14 dated 9600 BC
Beginning of Göbekli Tepe.

2751 BC
45.062 pmc, 6600 years +, 9351 BC

α
Abu Hureyra 9190
α
Abu Salem 8600

2733 BC
Tower of Babel (Syncellus, "St Jerome A" as defined above)

C-14 dated 8600 BC
End of Göbekli Tepe.

α "8500"
Nanzhuangtou culture 南莊頭遺址 Yellow River region in southern Hebei

α
Abu Madi 8050
ω
Abu Salem 8020

α
Stonehenge first inhabitants 8000 BC

α
Aswad 7855
ω
Abu Madi 7840

2683 BC
53.756 pmc, 5150 years +, 7833 BC

α
'Abr 3 7800
ω
'Abr 3 7735

ω "7700"
Nanzhuangtou culture 南莊頭遺址 Yellow River region in southern Hebei
α "7500"
Pengtoushan culture 彭頭山文化 central Yangtze region in northwestern Hunan

α
Ain el-Kerkh 7400
ω
Ain el-Kerkh 7215

Ιρλανδία
7,000 B.C. Ireland inhabited

α "7000"
Peiligang culture 裴李崗文化 Yi-Luo river basin valley in Henan

α A. Habermehl's
Music Instruments
Chinese flute set (Zhang et al. 1999)
7,000–5,000 BC

Abu Gosh
6945
α
Akarçay 6800

2614 BC
60.687 pmc, 4150 years +, 6764 BC

Αμερική
Kennewick Man 6740 - 6450 BC

α
Ain Abu Nukhayla 6675
ω
Aswad 6590
α
Ain Jammam 6570

α "6500"
Houli culture 後李文化 Shandong

ω
Ain Abu Nukhayla 6420
α
Azraq 6400
ω
Azraq 6325

α "6200"
Xinglongwa culture 興隆洼文化 Inner Mongolia-Liaoning border
ω "6100"
Pengtoushan culture 彭頭山文化 central Yangtze region in northwestern Hunan

ω
Ain Jammam 6080
ω
Abu Hureyra 6070

Αμερική
European gene pool unity since about 6050 BC

α
Almendres Cromlech I 6000 BC

α "6000"
Kuahuqiao culture 跨湖桥文化 Zhejiang
Cishan culture 磁山文化 southern Hebei

2545 BC
66.061 pmc, 3450 years +, 5995 BC

α "5800"
Dadiwan culture 大地灣文化 Gansu and western Shaanxi

ω
Akarçay 5520

ω "5500"
Houli culture 後李文化 Shandong
Cishan culture 磁山文化 southern Hebei

α "5500"
Xinle culture 新樂文化 lower Liao River on the Liaodong Peninsula

Ιρλανδία
5,400 B.C. one very early tomb of Carrowmore and Knocknarea

ω "5400"
Dadiwan culture 大地灣文化 Gansu and western Shaanxi
Xinglongwa culture 興隆洼文化 Inner Mongolia-Liaoning border

α "5400"
Zhaobaogou culture 趙宝溝文化 Luan River valley in Inner Mongolia and northern Hebei

2476 BC
70.344 pmc, 2900 years +, 5376 BC

α "5300"
Beixin culture 北辛文化 Shandong

Αμερική
Mesolithic Spanish genome 5050 BC

β
Almendres Cromlech II 5000 BC

ω A. Habermehl's
Music Instruments
Chinese flute set (Zhang et al. 1999)
7,000–5,000 BC

ω "5000"
Kuahuqiao culture 跨湖桥文化 Zhejiang
Peiligang culture 裴李崗文化 Yi-Luo river basin valley in Henan

α "5000"
Hemudu culture 河姆渡文化 Yuyao and Zhoushan, Zhejiang
Daxi culture 大溪文化 Three Gorges region
Majiabang culture 馬家浜文化 Lake Tai area and north of Hangzhou Bay
Yangshao culture 仰韶文化 Henan, Shaanxi, and Shanxi

2408 BC
73.663 pmc, 2550 years +, 4958 BC

α
Goseck circle 4900 BC

ω "4800"
Xinle culture 新樂文化 lower Liao River on the Liaodong Peninsula

ω
Goseck circle 4700 BC

α "4700"
Hongshan culture 紅山文化 Inner Mongolia, Liaoning, and Hebei

2340
76.312 pmc, 2250 years +, 4590 BC

ω "4500"
Zhaobaogou culture 趙宝溝文化 Luan River valley in Inner Mongolia and northern Hebei
Hemudu culture 河姆渡文化 Yuyao and Zhoushan, Zhejiang

α
La Culture d'Arzachena 4300 av. J.C.

ω "4100"
Beixin culture 北辛文化 Shandong

α "4100"
Dawenkou culture 大汶口文化 Shandong, Anhui, Henan, and Jiangsu

α
La cultura di Bonu Ighinu 4000 a.C.

2271 BC
78.366 pmc, 2000 years +, 4271 BC

A. Habermehl's
Music Instruments
Antaras of Peru (Bishop 2014)
≈4200 BC

2202
80.000 pmc, 1850 years +, 4052 BC

Αμερική
Poverty Point [Earliest] Mounds** 4050 BC

γ
Almendres Cromlech III 4000 BC
Ιρλανδία
4,000 B.C. early tombs of Carrowmore and Knocknarea

2134
81.266 pmc, 1700 years +, 3834 BC

α "3800"
Songze culture 崧澤文化 Lake Tai area

Ιρλανδία
3,700 B.C. Céide Fields
ω
La Culture d'Arzachena 3700 av. J.C.

2065
82.28 pmc, 1600 years +, 3665 BC

Ιρλανδία
3,500 B.C. late tombs of Carrowmore and Knocknarea

2015 BC
Birth of Abraham, St Jerome.

1997 BC
83.069 pmc, 1550 years +, 3547 BC

α "3400"
Liangzhu culture 良渚文化 Yangtze River Delta

1928 BC
83.689 pmc, 1450 years +, 3378 BC

ω
La cultura di Bonu Ighinu 3300 a.C.
α
La culture d'Ozieri 3300 av. J.C.

α A. Habermehl's
Music Instruments
Harp rock etching from Megiddo (Braun 2002)
≈3300–3000 BC

ω "3300"
Songze culture 崧澤文化 Lake Tai area

Ιρλανδία
3,200 B.C. Knowth, Newgrange
β
Stonehenge 1 (ca. 3100 BC)

α "3100"
Majiayao culture 馬家窯文化 upper Yellow River region in Gansu and Qinghai
Qujialing culture 屈家嶺文化 middle Yangtze region in Hubei and Hunan

Αμερική
Limit : Earliest inhabitants vs Later ones 3050 BC and earlier

Ιρλανδία
3,000 B.C. Cloghanmore and Farranmacbride of Glencolmcille

ω A. Habermehl's
Music Instruments
Harp rock etching from Megiddo (Braun 2002)
≈3300–3000 BC

A. Habermehl's
Music Instruments
Lithophone of Vietnam (Lithophone 2008)
3000 BC

A. Habermehl's
Music Instruments
Sumerian musicians bas relief (Wilson 2012)
3000 BC

ω "3000"
Daxi culture 大溪文化 Three Gorges region
Majiabang culture 馬家浜文化 Lake Tai area and north of Hangzhou Bay
Yangshao culture 仰韶文化 Henan, Shaanxi, and Shanxi

α "3000"
Longshan culture 龍山文化 central and lower Yellow River

ω "2900"
[Hongshan culture 紅山文化 Inner Mongolia, Liaoning, and Hebei .... omitting later endings of Chinese cultures]

ω
[La culture d'Ozieri 2480 av. J.C.]


For any item, letters alpha and omega are used as beginning and end of, while alpha, beta, even gamma are used as first, second, third etc stages of whatever./HGL

Tuesday, March 7, 2017

Stone Age Poland from Flood to Abraham



Using the table in : Flood to Abraham, St Jerome A
http://creavsevolu.blogspot.fr/2017/03/flood-to-abraham-st-jerome-a.html


"40 000"
Homo sapiens proper (Homo sapiens sapiens, the Cro-Magnon type) appears in the Upper Paleolithic, which lasted from 40,000 to 9,000 BCE.[a] During the coldest part of this Ice age period, 20,000 to 15,000 BCE, humans did not inhabit Poland. The latter, warmer part, after the climatic discontinuity and the reappearance of humans, is considered the Late Paleolithic.

[Could also be post-Flood, but if 40 000 BC, it could be Sethite visitors to Poland before the Flood too. If so, close kin to Noah. Or similarily mixed with Neanderthals as the post-Flood Sethites.]

The Flood 2957 BC
(St Jerome)
1.636 %, + 34 000 years, 36 957 BC

"28 000"
In a cave near Nowy Targ (East-Gravettian culture), a 30,000-year-old boomerang, the world's oldest, was found. It is a crescent-shaped 70 cm long object with a fine finish, made of mammoth tusk.

Also 30,000 years old are the so-called Mladeč-type blades of the Aurignacian culture, made of bone, found in Wierzchowie, Kraków County.

"25 500"
A 27,500-year old burial of an 18-month old child, complete with burial gift decorative artifacts, pendant or necklace elements made of teeth of large ungulates, was discovered in Borsuk Cave near Kraków (southern Kraków-Częstochowa Upland). It is believed to be the oldest intentional burial located in Poland.

"25 000"
Mammoths were hunted in the Kraków area during 25,000-20,000 BCE.

"20 000"
[Beginning of ice age break :] Homo sapiens proper (Homo sapiens sapiens, the Cro-Magnon type) appears in the Upper Paleolithic, which lasted from 40,000 to 9,000 BCE.[a] During the coldest part of this Ice age period, 20,000 to 15,000 BCE, humans did not inhabit Poland. The latter, warmer part, after the climatic discontinuity and the reappearance of humans, is considered the Late Paleolithic.

Mammoths were hunted in the Kraków area during 25,000-20,000 BCE.

2888 BC
19.78 pmc, 13 400 years +, 16 288 BC

"15 000"
[End of ice age break :] Homo sapiens proper (Homo sapiens sapiens, the Cro-Magnon type) appears in the Upper Paleolithic, which lasted from 40,000 to 9,000 BCE.[a] During the coldest part of this Ice age period, 20,000 to 15,000 BCE, humans did not inhabit Poland. The latter, warmer part, after the climatic discontinuity and the reappearance of humans, is considered the Late Paleolithic.

[older date] Remnants of a 15,000 to 17,000 years old Magdalenian culture dwelling (a dugout cabin site with traces of supporting posts, a hearth and imported materials) were discovered recently in Ćmielów, Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski County.

"14 500"
A rich source of Late Paleolithic sites and artifacts (the Magdalenian culture of 14,500 BCE) is the Prądnik River Valley. The Maszycka Cave there contained the remains of a typical (at that time) social unit of several families, 20-30 people, as well as numerous tools and other artifacts of their culture, including ornamented bone utensils

"13 500"
Hamburgian begins

"13 000"
[Younger date] Remnants of a 15,000 to 17,000 years old Magdalenian culture dwelling (a dugout cabin site with traces of supporting posts, a hearth and imported materials) were discovered recently in Ćmielów, Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski County.

"12 600"
Rydno is a complex of archeological sites along the Kamiennna River valley between Skarżysko-Kamienna and Wąchock. Several hundred Paleolithic campsites have been located there, which makes it the world's largest accumulation of such finds. They extend over a number of periods, beginning with the Mousterian (Neanderthal) culture, followed by the Hamburg culture of reindeer hunters. The Final Paleolithic is represented there by the Komornica culture, named after a village in Legionowo County. The best known Late Paleolithic campsites in the area, which include some dugout huts, belonged to the people preoccupied with hematite ore mining, from which ochre pigment used for body painting was being made. The red dye was widely traded, which is why rocks and minerals originating from distant regions of today's Poland, Slovakia and Hungary are found at Rydno. Pieces of "chocolate" flint brought into this area for processing were stored in quantities that were always multiples of three. Because of this and other evidence, it is believed that the Paleolithic people developed a counting system based on this number. A 12,600 BCE Hamburg culture site with tents, camp-fire and stone meat baking devices was discovered in Olbrachcice, Wschowa County.

"12 000"
Federmesser culture begins

"11 900"
Ahrensburg culture begins

2820 BC
33.849 pmc, 8950 years +, 11 770 BC

"11 100"
Hamburgian ends

"11 000"
Swiderian culture begins

"10 800"
Federmesser culture ends

"10 700"
Ahrensburg culture ends

C-14 dated 9600 BC
Beginning of Göbekli Tepe.

2751 BC
45.062 pmc, 6600 years +, 9351 BC

"9000"
[End of:] Homo sapiens proper (Homo sapiens sapiens, the Cro-Magnon type) appears in the Upper Paleolithic, which lasted from 40,000 to 9,000 BCE.[a] During the coldest part of this Ice age period, 20,000 to 15,000 BCE, humans did not inhabit Poland. The latter, warmer part, after the climatic discontinuity and the reappearance of humans, is considered the Late Paleolithic.

[Beginning of:] The Mesolithic lasted from 9000 BCE (rapid climate warming) to 5500 BCE (arrival of first farmers from the Danube River area). It was the last period when the food production economy was entirely opportunistic, based on assimilation of plant and animal material found in nature, that is gathering and hunting. Because of warmer temperatures, complex forest ecosystems and wetlands developed and this natural diversity necessitated new hunting and fishing strategies. As new populations entered Poland from the west,[14] hunters and fishermen working individually or in small groups had to pursue single large and small animals using traps, javelins, bows and arrows, boats and fishing equipment, and utilizing dogs. Women engaged in gathering of such products as roots, herbs, nuts, bird eggs, mollusks, fruit or honey, which possibly was even more important than hunting. Mesolithic human settlements became quite numerous and by the end of this period the economy of harvesting nature became very highly developed. Tools and devices were made of materials such as stone (flint strip mines have been found at the northern edge of Świętokrzyskie Mountains), bone, wood, horn, or plant material for rope and baskets, and included such fine utensils as fishing hooks and sewing needles. Animal figurines were made of amber. At least during the later Mesolithic, the dead were placed in graves and outfitted with familiar objects of their surroundings.

2733 BC
Tower of Babel (Syncellus, "St Jerome A" as defined above) : the few men of Swiderian culture who were in Poland, and had been speaking Hebrew, as well as the main portion of mankind, around Göbekli Tepe, ceased to speak Hebrew and were given a new language, the ones at Babel being in family with those of Swiderian culture getting the same as they and soon coming out to Poland.

C-14 dated 8600 BC
End of Göbekli Tepe.

"8 200"
Swiderian culture ends

2683 BC
53.756 pmc, 5150 years +, 7833 BC

2614 BC
60.687 pmc, 4150 years +, 6764 BC

2545 BC
66.061 pmc, 3450 years +, 5995 BC

"5500"
[End of:] The Mesolithic lasted from 9000 BCE (rapid climate warming) to 5500 BCE (arrival of first farmers from the Danube River area). It was the last period when the food production economy was entirely opportunistic, based on assimilation of plant and animal material found in nature, that is gathering and hunting. Because of warmer temperatures, complex forest ecosystems and wetlands developed and this natural diversity necessitated new hunting and fishing strategies. As new populations entered Poland from the west,[14] hunters and fishermen working individually or in small groups had to pursue single large and small animals using traps, javelins, bows and arrows, boats and fishing equipment, and utilizing dogs. Women engaged in gathering of such products as roots, herbs, nuts, bird eggs, mollusks, fruit or honey, which possibly was even more important than hunting. Mesolithic human settlements became quite numerous and by the end of this period the economy of harvesting nature became very highly developed. Tools and devices were made of materials such as stone (flint strip mines have been found at the northern edge of Świętokrzyskie Mountains), bone, wood, horn, or plant material for rope and baskets, and included such fine utensils as fishing hooks and sewing needles. Animal figurines were made of amber. At least during the later Mesolithic, the dead were placed in graves and outfitted with familiar objects of their surroundings.

Linear Pottery culture begins

One such well preserved grave of an apparent tool-maker, together with his tools and other items, was found in Janisławice near Skierniewice and dated 5500 BCE.

Early Neolithic era began around 5500 BCE with the arrival from the middle Danube area of people, who kept livestock, cultivated crops, made pottery and smooth-surface tools. Their land tilling predecessors had been coming into the Balkans and then the Danube region from Anatolia beginning a thousand years earlier. They formed the first settled rural communities, thus forging the most fundamental civilizational advance.

2476 BC
70.344 pmc, 2900 years +, 5376 BC

"5300"
Ertebølle culture begins

"5000"
Despite the big impact they made, the first waves came in small numbers - hundreds, or at most a few thousand people, judging by the sizes of the known settlements. They populated mainly fertile soils of southern highlands and river valleys further north, all the way to the Baltic Sea. They lived alongside the more numerous native people who were still pursuing the Mesolithic lifestyle, but during the Linear Pottery culture times there wasn't much interaction, as the two groups inhabited different environments.[17] Their villages consisted of several, but sometimes up to a dozen or so rectangular communal long-houses,[18] some over 30 meters long, supported by wooden posts, the oldest of which come from the Lower Silesia region. One such location from about 5000 BCE was also unearthed at Olszanica, which is now at the west end of Kraków just within the city limits.

After 5000 BCE new waves of immigrants arrived from the south again, which accelerated the process of differentiation of the agrarian society into several distinct cultures during the first half of 5th millennium BC and afterwards.

In the Oder River basin mostly there was the culture named after the punctured variety of Linear Band pottery - Stroked Pottery culture, while in the Vistula River basin the Lengyel and Polgár cultures appeared. The two regions developed in some separation, but within them the different cultural traditions of the younger Danubian circle often overlapped.

also "5000"
Hinkelstein culture begins
Lengyel culture begins
The Malice farming culture of southern Poland begins

The Malice farming culture of southern Poland (all of 5th millennium and until 3800 BCE, named after a site in Malice near Sandomierz) was the first Neolithic culture to originate north of the Carpathian Mountains and spread south.[25] A rare discovery of 5th millennium Malice culture buildings and decorated pottery was made in Targowisko, Wieliczka County.

2408 BC
73.663 pmc, 2550 years +, 4958 BC

"4900"
Hinkelstein culture ends

"4600"
The original newcomers represented the Linear Pottery culture. Their uniform culture survived in Poland in its original form until about 4600 BCE.

The houses were now of an elongated trapezoidal shape, up to 40 meters long, grouped in larger complexes, often protected by beam and earth walls, moats and other fortifications, as such defensive measures apparently became necessary against people from the still Mesolithic native population or other Danubian settlements. These defensive structures, built from the mid 5th millennium BCE on, were complicated and consumed significant time and resources. Their design followed that of the similar construction that was taking place in the Danube River areas, starting in the early part of this millennium. Large cemeteries and graves supplied with fancier objects such as jewelry, including the first so-called "princely" graves (the princesses had imported copper necklaces, earrings and diadems in addition to locally made decorations), testify to the emergence of a relatively more affluent society. Cattle raising and trading (large varieties resulted from cross-breeding with the aurochs) and land tillage provided basic sustenance. Salt was obtained and traded and became a much sought after commodity, at first probably to help preserve stored food. The salt springs around Wieliczka were utilized already by the Lengyel culture people, who left ceramic vessels used in salt production there.[20] The Danubian people produced many richly decorated objects, including clay containers with animal head ornaments and figurines of women.

A settlement and cemetery of the Lengyel-Polgár cultural zone, dated around or after 4600 BCE, was discovered in Ślęza, Wrocław County. It consisted of a central long trapezoidal house accompanied by several post-built supporting structures.

also "4600"
Stroke-ornamented ware culture begins
Rössen culture begins

2340
76.312 pmc, 2250 years +, 4590 BC

"4500"
Linear Pottery culture ends

"4450"
Ertebølle culture goes ceramik

After 4500 BCE the Ertebølle culture of northwestern origin entered a ceramic phase with its own forms of pottery (characteristic pointed bottoms). They lived by the Baltic Sea shores and were specialized in utilizing the resources of the sea, thus still representing the Mesolithic ways of life. At their settlement in Dąbki near Koszalin Stroke-ornamented pottery was found, obtained probably through trade with the Danubian people.

The native Mesolithic populations were slow in gradually assimilating the agricultural way of life, beginning with just the use of ceramics. It took a thousand years into the Neolithic period before they adopted animal husbandry (which became especially important to them) and plant cultivation to any appreciable degree. When they eventually developed interest in the more fertile areas utilized by the late Danubian cultures, they became the threat that compelled the Danubian farmers to fortify their settlements. The native post-Mesolithic groups expanded beyond the traditional Danubian areas of agricultural development, moving also into ecologically less favorable environments, which included utilization of sandy soils.

[A thousand years? Look at the real years!]

"4400"
Stroke-ornamented ware culture ends
Lengyel culture begins to flourish in Poland
The first truly native Neolithic culture was the Funnelbeaker culture, named after the shape of their typical clay vessels. It developed starting around 4400 BCE and lasted some two thousand years.

[Lasted some 2000 years? Confer the real dates!]

They built tombs of large stones, some of them huge (for example trapezoidal structures up to 150 meters long) and resembling pyramids. Few survived until now because of the demand for stone as building material, but a well-preserved one from the first half of 4th millennium BC was found in Wietrzychowice near Włocławek. From this place and period came the skull, on which the trepanation procedure was performed for medical or magic reasons.

"4300"
Rössen culture ends

2271 BC
78.366 pmc, 2000 years +, 4271 BC

"4200"
Among the large explored settlements of the Lengyel culture from the 4400-4000 BCE period, there is one in Brześć Kujawski, and another one in Osłonki, solidly fortified about 4200 BCE after an assault incident involving arson and murder, both located in the Kujawy region.

At the Osłonki settlement nearly 30 trapezoidal houses and over 80 graves were located, some of them with many copper ornaments. The agricultural and construction activities of the communities centered on the two large settlements (hunting and fishing were also practiced) caused very likely an accumulation of environmental damage, which eventually forced them to abandon the area.

2202
80.000 pmc, 1850 years +, 4052 BC

"4000"
Lengyel culture ends its great flourishing in Poland

"3950"
Ertebølle culture ends

2134
81.266 pmc, 1700 years +, 3834 BC

"3800"
The Malice farming culture of southern Poland ends

2065
82.28 pmc, 1600 years +, 3665 BC

2015 BC
Birth of Abraham, St Jerome.

1997 BC
83.069 pmc, 1550 years +, 3547 BC

"3400"
Lengyel culture ends
A pot from Bronocice, Pińczów County

Timewise the beginnings of the post-Mesolithic cultures in Poland coincide with the beginnings of the Eneolithic period in the Balkans. Copper objects, mostly ornamental or luxurious items, were traded and then developed locally, first by the Danubian and then by the indigenous people. Copper metallurgy facilities were identified in Złota near Sandomierz. Clay decorative objects include realistic representations of animals and containers with images engraved on them. A pot from Bronocice, Pińczów County (3400 BCE) has a unique narrative scene and the world's oldest semblance of a four-wheeled cart drawn on its surface. Stone tools became most highly developed and acquired their then characteristic smooth surfaces. Well preserved settlements with rectangular buildings were unearthed in Gródek Nadbużny near Hrubieszów (where remnants of a vertical loom for weaving were found), in Niedźwiedź near Kraków, and in northern Poland in Barłożno, Starogard Gdański County, where the structures are similar to the ones in Niedźwiedź. In Barłożno three post supported houses were discovered, the largest of which had the main part 16 meters long and 6.5 meters wide. As dated from the ceramics found, they represent the developed, "Wiórecka" phase of the Funnelbeaker culture.

"3400"
[Beginning of:] The Globular Amphora culture was the next major Neolithic culture. It originated in the Polish lowlands during the first half of 4th millennium BC, lasted to about 2400 BCE in parallel with the Funnelbeaker culture, and is named after the bulging shape of its representative pottery. They specialized in breeding domestic animals and lived in a semi-settled state, seeking optimal pastures and moving as needed. This semi-nomadic lifestyle was probably necessitated by the poor condition of the soils, by that time depleted and rendered infertile because of the preceding centuries of forest burning and extensive exploitation. Globular Amphora were the first culture in Poland known for utilizing the domesticated horse, and swine became important as the source of food. Ritual animal, especially cattle burial sites, often with two or more individuals buried together and supplied with objects as strange as drums have been discovered, but their role is not well understood. Globular Amphora people were involved in the north-south amber trade. Their megalithic burials included ceramics, stone tools and ornamental gifts.

1928 BC
Abraham in En Gedi, according to chronology of St Jerome.
83.689 pmc, 1450 years +, 3378 BC

"3200"
[Beginning:] The Baden culture in southern Poland was the latest of the Danubian ancestry cultures and continued between 3200 and 2600 BCE. They made vessels with characteristic protruding radial ornaments.

"3000"
A large fortified Baden culture settlement of around 3000 BCE was found in Bronocice near Pińczów.

"2600"
[End:] The Baden culture in southern Poland was the latest of the Danubian ancestry cultures and continued between 3200 and 2600 BCE. They made vessels with characteristic protruding radial ornaments.

"2400"
[End of:] The first truly native Neolithic culture was the Funnelbeaker culture, named after the shape of their typical clay vessels. It developed starting around 4400 BCE and lasted some two thousand years. [This is however outside the Flood to Abraham scope.]

[Lasted some 2000 years? Confer the real dates!]

[End of:] The Globular Amphora culture was the next major Neolithic culture. It originated in the Polish lowlands during the first half of 4th millennium BC, lasted to about 2400 BCE in parallel with the Funnelbeaker culture ...

On Funnelbeaker in general:
"Originating from central European lowlands, the Funnelbeaker people were able to utilize large expanses of less fertile soils, obtained by extensive reduction of forested areas, with the increased role of livestock.[14] They moved south into the regions previously developed by the Danubian cultures, all the way to Bohemia and Moravia. Being more numerous, better fit for the environment, organized and economically more productive, the Funnelbeaker culture people replaced the Danubian cultures in their late phase."

[How do we know there were two different peoples? Anatomy? Genetics?

Even if we know the replacement, do we know the mode?]

Source
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stone-Age_Poland

I think what I quoted from article, sometimes pasting same quote twice, at beginning and end of a period, which is clumsy, will suffice to bring us up to times of Abraham, though I am omitting ... no, I am not, I'll bring in two more quotes above. Now, that is done, and so is this article./HGL

Saturday, March 4, 2017

Dating Neolithic China


Here is a table, partly with Biblical years corresponding to carbon dated years, and partly, between these, beginnings and endings of Chinese neolithic cultures with their carbon dated years:

I, Flood, 2957 BC
3.8987 %, + 26 800 years, 29 757 BC
II 2868 BC
28.3588 %, + 10 400 years, 13 268 BC
III 2778 BC
40.1563 %, + 7550 years, 10 328 BC

Beginning "8500"
Nanzhuangtou culture 南莊頭遺址 Yellow River region in southern Hebei

Mid pt.2733 BC
49.279 % + 5850 years, 8583 BC

Ending "7700"
Nanzhuangtou culture 南莊頭遺址 Yellow River region in southern Hebei

Beginning "7500"
Pengtoushan culture 彭頭山文化 central Yangtze region in northwestern Hunan

IV 2688 BC
56.3215 %, + 4750 years, 7438 BC
IV b 2644 BC
57.7677 %, + 4550 years, 7194 BC

Beginning "7000"
Peiligang culture 裴李崗文化 Yi-Luo river basin valley in Henan

V 2599 BC
59.2343 %, + 4350 years, 6949 BC

Beginning "6500"
Houli culture 後李文化 Shandong

V b 2554 BC
63.2865 %, + 3800 years, 6354 BC

Beginning "6200"
Xinglongwa culture 興隆洼文化 Inner Mongolia-Liaoning border

Ending "6100"
Pengtoushan culture 彭頭山文化 central Yangtze region in northwestern Hunan

Beginning "6000"
Kuahuqiao culture 跨湖桥文化 Zhejiang
Cishan culture 磁山文化 southern Hebei

Beginning "5800"
Dadiwan culture 大地灣文化 Gansu and western Shaanxi

VI 2510 BC
67.3894 %, + 3250 years, 5760 BC
VI b 2465 BC
68.6124 %, + 3100 years, 5565 BC

Ending "5500"
Houli culture 後李文化 Shandong
Cishan culture 磁山文化 southern Hebei

Beginning "5500"
Xinle culture 新樂文化 lower Liao River on the Liaodong Peninsula

Ending "5400"
Dadiwan culture 大地灣文化 Gansu and western Shaanxi
Xinglongwa culture 興隆洼文化 Inner Mongolia-Liaoning border

Beginning "5400"
Zhaobaogou culture 趙宝溝文化 Luan River valley in Inner Mongolia and northern Hebei

VII 2420 BC
69.8518 %, + 2950 years, 5370 BC

Beginning "5300"
Beixin culture 北辛文化 Shandong

VII b 2375 BC
72.6148 %, + 2650 years, 5025 BC

Ending "5000"
Kuahuqiao culture 跨湖桥文化 Zhejiang
Peiligang culture 裴李崗文化 Yi-Luo river basin valley in Henan

Beginning "5000"
Hemudu culture 河姆渡文化 Yuyao and Zhoushan, Zhejiang
Daxi culture 大溪文化 Three Gorges region
Majiabang culture 馬家浜文化 Lake Tai area and north of Hangzhou Bay
Yangshao culture 仰韶文化 Henan, Shaanxi, and Shanxi

Ending "4800"
Xinle culture 新樂文化 lower Liao River on the Liaodong Peninsula

Beginning "4700"
Hongshan culture 紅山文化 Inner Mongolia, Liaoning, and Hebei

VIII 2330 BC
75.4116 %, + 2350 years, 4680 BC
VIII b 2286 BC
76.3648 %, + 2250 years, 4536 BC

Ending "4500"
Zhaobaogou culture 趙宝溝文化 Luan River valley in Inner Mongolia and northern Hebei
Hemudu culture 河姆渡文化 Yuyao and Zhoushan, Zhejiang

IX 2241 BC
77.3305 %, + 2150 years, 4391 BC
IX b 2196 BC
79.037 %, + 1950 years, 4146 BC

Ending "4100"
Beixin culture 北辛文化 Shandong

Beginning "4100"
Dawenkou culture 大汶口文化 Shandong, Anhui, Henan, and Jiangsu

X 2152 BC
80.7643 %, + 1750 years, 3902 BC
X b 2107 BC
81.1032 %, + 1750 years, 3857 BC

Beginning "3800"
Songze culture 崧澤文化 Lake Tai area

XI 2062 BC
81.4472 %, + 1700 years, 3762 BC
XI b 2017 BC
82.4281 %, + 1600 years, 3617 BC
XII 1972 BC
83.4211 %, + 1500 years, 3472 BC
Mid pt. 1928 BC
83.689 % + 1472 years, 3400 BC

Beginning "3400"
Liangzhu culture 良渚文化 Yangtze River Delta

Ending "3300"
Songze culture 崧澤文化 Lake Tai area

XIII 1883 BC
84.35 %, + 1400 years, 3283 BC

Beginning "3100"
Majiayao culture 馬家窯文化 upper Yellow River region in Gansu and Qinghai
Qujialing culture 屈家嶺文化 middle Yangtze region in Hubei and Hunan

Ending "3000"
Daxi culture 大溪文化 Three Gorges region
Majiabang culture 馬家浜文化 Lake Tai area and north of Hangzhou Bay
Yangshao culture 仰韶文化 Henan, Shaanxi, and Shanxi

Beginning "3000"
Longshan culture 龍山文化 central and lower Yellow River

XIV 1794 BC
86.82 %, + 1150 years, 2944 BC

Ending "2900"
Hongshan culture 紅山文化 Inner Mongolia, Liaoning, and Hebei

XV 1704 BC
87.636 %, + 1091 years, 2800 BC

Beginning "2800"
Baodun culture 寶墩文化 Chengdu Plain

Ending "2700"
Majiayao culture 馬家窯文化 upper Yellow River region in Gansu and Qinghai
Qujialing culture 屈家嶺文化 middle Yangtze region in Hubei and Hunan

Ending "2600"
Dawenkou culture 大汶口文化 Shandong, Anhui, Henan, and Jiangsu

Beginning "2500"
Shijiahe culture 石家河文化 middle Yangtze region in Hubei

XVI 1614 BC
91.388 %, + 740 years, 2354 BC

Ending "2250"
Liangzhu culture 良渚文化 Yangtze River Delta

XVII 1525 BC
92.632 %, + 630 years, 2155 BC

Ending "2000"
Longshan culture 龍山文化 central and lower Yellow River
Baodun culture 寶墩文化 Chengdu Plain
Shijiahe culture 石家河文化 middle Yangtze region in Hubei

Beginning "1900"
Yueshi culture 岳石文化 lower Yellow River region in Shandong

XVIII 1436 BC
94.953 %, + 430 years, 1866 BC

Beginning "1750"
Erlitou culture 二里頭文化 - Bronze Age
in the Yellow River valley, Yanshi, Henan. The culture was widely spread throughout Henan and Shanxi and later appeared in Shaanxi and Hubei

XIX 1346 BC
95.724 %, + 360 years, 1706 BC

Ending "1530"
Erlitou culture 二里頭文化 - Bronze Age
in the Yellow River valley, Yanshi, Henan. The culture was widely spread throughout Henan and Shanxi and later appeared in Shaanxi and Hubei

Beginning "1510"
Erligang culture 二里崗文化 Bronze Age
The primary site, Zhengzhou Shang City, was discovered at Erligang, within the modern city of Zhengzhou, Henan, in 1951. The culture was centered in the Yellow River valley. In its early years, it expanded rapidly, reaching the Yangtze River. The culture then gradually shrank from its early peak.

Ending "1500"
Yueshi culture 岳石文化 lower Yellow River region in Shandong

XX 1256 BC
97.152 %, + 240 years, 1496 BC

Ending "1460"
Erligang culture 二里崗文化 Bronze Age
The primary site, Zhengzhou Shang City, was discovered at Erligang, within the modern city of Zhengzhou, Henan, in 1951. The culture was centered in the Yellow River valley. In its early years, it expanded rapidly, reaching the Yangtze River. The culture then gradually shrank from its early peak.

XXI 1167 BC
97.626 %, + 200 years, 1367 BC
XXII 1078 BC
98.519 %, + 120 years, 1198 BC
XXIII 988 BC
98.816 %, + 100 years, 1088 BC
XXIV 898 BC
99.351 %, + 50 years, 948 BC
XXV 809 BC
99.529 %, + 40 years, 849 BC
XXVI 720 BC
99.827 %, + 10 years, 730
XXVII 630 BC
100.005 %, 0 years ±. 630 BC


The correspondences from Biblical to carbon are derived from this table, also by me:

Creation vs. Evolution : Interim Report
http://creavsevolu.blogspot.com/2017/03/interim-report.html


The beginnings and endings of Chinese neolithic cultures are derived from wikipedia.

List of Neolithic cultures of China
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Neolithic_cultures_of_China


I was debating on youtube, someone pretended "Chinese history" extended back beyond Biblical Flood and Creation, I asked if he meant by Emperors living 10 000 years - or by carbon dated cultures. I expect he'll be back with the latter, so I have prepared "a little list, they'll none of them be missed"./HGL

Updated with two articles about Chinese Bronze Age:

Erlitou culture
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erlitou_culture


Erligang culture
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erligang_culture