Wednesday, May 23, 2018

Age at death


France St Louis IX to Louis XI : Part I · Part II · Part III · Part IV · Part V
Stats: Age at death

In previous, I made one clear mistake: Charles VI seems to have got by mistake same children as Charles V. Not counted.

I also randomly counted and did not count unknown age of spouse as unknown person of that sex.

Infants and children:

55 of unknown age.

age
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
number
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

age
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
number
26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53

age
00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 02 02 02 02 02 02
00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 02 02 02 02 02
number
54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79

age
02 02 03 03 03 03 03 04 04 05 06 06 06 06 06 07 07 07 07 07 08 08 08 08 09
02 02 03 03 03 03 03 04 04 05 05 06 06 06 06 07 07 07 07 07 08 08 08 08 09
number
80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04

age
10 10 10 10 11 12 13 13 13
number
05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13


113 from 0 to 11/13
055 ?
168

Median, less than one year, therefore also lower quartile. Higher quartile, 3 years. Children aged 12 and 13 are boys only, since ladies count as such from age 12.

Ladies:

41 at unknown age (above 11)

age
12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 18 18 20 20 20 20
12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 17 17 17 17 17 18 20 20 20 20
number
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

age
21 22 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 27 27 27
21 22 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 27 27
number
26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49

age
27 28 28 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 29 30 30 31 31 31 32 32 32 33 33 33 33 34 35
number
50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

age
35 35 36 36 36 36 36 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 38 38 38 39 39 39 39 40 40 41
35 35 35 36 36 36 36 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 38 38 38 39 39 39 39 40 40 41
number
76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01

Cent
01 / 02 = 101 / 102

age
42 42 42 42 43 43 43 43 43 43 44 44 44 44 44 45 45 46 46 47 47 47 47 47 48 48
42 42 42 42 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 44 44 44 44 45 45 46 46 47 47 47 47 47 48 48
number
02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

age
48 48 48 49 50 50 50 50 51 51 51 52 52 52 53 53 53 53 53 54 54 54 55 55 55
48 48 48 49 49 50 50 50 50 51 51 51 52 52 52 53 53 53 53 54 54 54 55 55 55
number
28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52

age
55 56 56 56 57 57 58 58 58 58 58 59 59 59 59 60 60 60 60 60 60 61 62 62 62 62
number
53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78

age
63 63 63 63 64 65 65 65 66 67 67 67 68 68 69 69 70 70 71 72 72 72 73 73 73 74
number
79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04

Cent
04 / 05 = 204 / 205

age
76 76 79 78 80 80 85 87 88 89 90
75 76 76 76 78 80 80 87 88 89 90
number
05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15


215 ladies from 12 to 90
041 ?
256

214 / 2 = 107
107 + 1 = 108, median 43 years
106 / 2 = 53
53 + 1 = 54, lower quartile 28 years
107 + 53 + 1 = 161, higher quartile 58 years

Gentlemen:

21 died at unknown age.

age
14 15 15 15 16 17 17 17 17 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 21 22
number
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

age
22 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 26 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 29 29 30 30
22 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 29 29 30 30
number
26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51

age
30 31 31 31 31 31 32 32 32 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 35 35 35 35 35 35 36 36 37
30 31 31 31 31 31 31 32 32 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 35 35 35 35 35 35 36 36 36
number
52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76

age
37 37 37 37 37 37 38 38 38 38 38 38 39 39 39 39 40 40 42 43 43 43 43 43 44 44
number
77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02

Cent
02 / 03 = 102 / 103

age
44 44 44 45 45 45 46 46 46 46 46 46 47 47 48 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 50 50
44 44 44 45 45 45 46 46 46 46 46 46 47 47 48 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 50
number
03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

age
50 51 51 51 51 51 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 53 53 53 53 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 55
50 50 51 51 51 51 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 53 53 53 53 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
number
28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53

age
55 55 55 55 56 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 58 58 58 58 59 59 59 59 59 60 60
55 55 55 55 55 56 56 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 58 58 58 58 59 59 59 59 59 60
number
54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78

age
61 61 61 61 62 62 62 62 62 62 63 63 64 64 64 64 65 65 66 67 67 67 67 67 67 68
number
79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04

Cent
04 / 05 = 204 / 205

age
69 70 70 70 71 71 71 71 71 72 73
number
05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15


215 gentlemen from 14 to 73
021 ?
236

Same number, so medians and quartiles are at same number too:

108, median 45 years
54, lower quartile 31 years
161, higher quartile 57 years

Note, this higher quartile for overall siblings coincides well with the median for statistics with "ancestor bias". But, this is for royalties, since commoners lived longer.

Infants and children 168, ladies 256, gentlemen 236 = all together 660. 168 / 660 = 25.45 % infant and child mortality. Only three quarters (somewhat less) reached adulthood./HGL

Friday, May 18, 2018

France St Louis IX to Louis XI, V


France St Louis IX to Louis XI : Part I · Part II · Part III · Part IV · Part V
Stats: Age at death

Excursus
William I, Duke of Bavaria
marriage
He married Matilda of Lancaster, daughter of Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster and Isabel de Beaumont in London in 1352 [she was 13]
child
They had only one daughter, who died in 1356.

Excursus
Albert I, Duke of Bavaria
I marriage
Albert married in Passau after 19 July 1353, Margaret of Brieg from Silesia (1342/43 – 1386), [she was 10/11?]
children
Katherine of Bavaria (c. 1361 – 1400, Hattem), married in Geertruidenberg in 1379 William I of Gelders and Jülich.
Johanna of Bavaria (c. 1362 – 1386), married Wenceslaus, King of the Romans.
Margaret of Bavaria (1363 – 23 January 1423, Dijon), married in Cambrai in 1385 John the Fearless.
William VI, Count of Holland (1365–1417), father of Jacqueline of Hainault.
Albert II, Duke of Bavaria-Straubing (1369 – 21 January 1397, Kelheim).
Joanna Sophia (c. 1373 – 15 November 1410, Vienna), married on 15 June 1395 Albert IV, Duke of Austria.
John, Count of Holland (1374/76 – 1425), Bishop of Liège.
II marriage
Albert contracted a second marriage in 1394 in Heusden with Margaret of Cleves (c. 1375 – 1412), sister of Adolph I, Duke of Cleves, but they had no children.

Excursus
Margaret of Bavaria
marriage
In 1385, at the Burgundian double wedding in Cambrai, she married [at 22] John, Count of Nevers, the son and heir of Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy and Margaret of Dampierre, Countess of Flanders, Artois and Burgundy;[3] at the same time her brother, William II, Duke of Bavaria married their daughter Margaret of Burgundy, Duchess of Bavaria.
children
Margaret, Countess of Gien and Montargis (1393–2 February 1441, Paris), married, on 30 August 1404, Louis, Dauphin of France, then, on 10 October 1422, Arthur de Richemont, Constable of France, the future Duke of Brittany
Catherine (d. 1414, Ghent)
Mary (1393 – 30 October 1466). She married Adolph I, Duke of Cleves.
Philip the Good, his successor (1396–1467)
Isabella, Countess of Penthièvre (d. 18 September 1412, Rouvres), married at Arras on 22 July 1406 to Olivier de Châtillon-Blois, Count of Penthièvre and Périgord
Joan (b. 1399, Bouvres), d. young
Anne (1404–14 November 1432, Paris), married John, Duke of Bedford
Agnes (1407–1 December 1476, Château de Moulins), married Charles I, Duke of Bourbon

Excursus
Marie of Burgundy, Duchess of Cleves
marriage
Born in Dijon, she became the second wife of Adolph, Count of Mark in May 1406. [she was 13]
children
Margaret (23 February 1416 – 20 May 1444), married first William III, Duke of Bavaria on 11 May 1433, second Ulrich V, Count of Württemberg on 29 January 1441
Catherine of Cleves (25 May 1417 – 10 February 1479); married on 23 July 1423 Arnold, Duke of Guelders, mother of Mary of Guelders, Queen consort of Scotland
John I, Duke of Cleves (1419–1481); married on 22 April 1455 Elizabeth of Nevers
Elisabeth of Cleves (1420–1488); married on 15 July 1434 Henry XXVI of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg (1418–1488)
Agnes of Cleves (1422–1446); married on 30 September 1439 Charles IV, King of Navarre
Helen of Cleves (1423–1471); married on 12 February 1436 Henry "the Peaceful", Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (c. 1411–1473)
Adolph of Cleves, Lord of Ravenstein (1425–1492); married on 13 May 1453 Beatrice of Portugal (1435–1462), daughter of Peter, Duke of Coimbra
Marie of Cleves (1426–1487); married on 27 November 1440 Charles, Duke of Orléans. Mother of Louis XII, King of France

Excursus
Margaret of Cleves, Duchess of Bavaria-Munich
I marriage
Sie heiratete am 11. Mai 1433 auf dem Konzil von Basel Wilhelm III. von Bayern-München. [she was 17]
children
Adolph (1434–1441)
William (1435)
II marriage
Nachdem Wilhelm III. 1435 gestorben war, wurde Margarete am 29. Januar 1441 in Stuttgart die erste Ehefrau Ulrichs V. von Württemberg.
daughter
Catharina (1441–1497) - became a Premonstratensian then a Dominican nun in Würzburg, then finally ending up in the monastery under the protection of bishop Rudolf van Würzburg

Excursus
Catherine of Cleves
marriage
Catherine lived with her parents until 1431, despite already having been married the year before. [marriage consumed at 14]
children
Mary (c. 1431-1463), who became Queen of Scotland by marriage to James II
William (born c. 1434), died young
Margaret (c. 1436-1486, Simmern), married on 16 August 1454 to Frederick I, Count of Palatine-Simmern.
Adolf (1438–1477)
Catherine (1439 – 1496), Regent of Guelders in 1477–1481.

Excursus
Mary of Guelders
marriage
Mary married James II, king of Scots, at Holyrood Abbey in Edinburgh on 3 July 1449. [she was 15]
children
An unnamed son. (Both born and died on 19 May 1450).
James III of Scotland (1451–1488).
Mary (May 1453-May 1488), who married first Thomas Boyd, 1st Earl of Arran, and secondly James Hamilton, 1st Lord Hamilton. She became the mother of James Hamilton, 1st Earl of Arran.
Alexander Stewart, Duke of Albany (c. 1454 - 1485).
Margaret (born c. 1455, date of death unknown), who married William Crichton, 3rd Lord Crichton of Auchingoul. She became the mother of Margaret Crichton and mother-in-law of George Leslie, 4th Earl of Rothes.
David Stewart, Earl of Moray (c. 1456 - 1457). He was created Earl of Moray on 12 February 1456.
John Stewart, 1st Earl of Mar and Garioch (c. 1459 - 1479).

Excursus
James III of Scotland
marriage
James married Margaret of Denmark in July 1469 at Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh. Christian I of Denmark gave the Orkney and Shetland Islands to Scotland in lieu of a dowry. [In July 1469, at the age of 13 she married James III at Holyrood Abbey.]
children
James IV of Scotland (17 March 1473 – 9 September 1513)
James Stewart, Duke of Ross (March 1476 – January 1504)
John Stewart, Earl of Mar (December 1479 – 11 March 1503)

Excursus
James IV of Scotland
marriage
In a ceremony at the altar of Glasgow Cathedral on 10 December 1502, James confirmed the Treaty of Perpetual Peace with Henry VII of England.[31] By this treaty James married Henry's daughter Margaret Tudor. After a wedding by proxy in London, the marriage was confirmed in person on 8 August 1503 at Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh. [she was 14] Their wedding was commemorated by the gift of a Book of Hours.
children
James, Duke of Rothesay (21 February 1507, Holyrood Palace – 27 February 1508, Stirling Castle)
A stillborn daughter at Holyrood Palace on 15 July 1508
Arthur, Duke of Rothesay (20 October 1509, Holyrood Palace – Edinburgh Castle, 14 July 1510).
James V (Linlithgow Palace, 10 April 1512 – Falkland Palace, Fife, 14 December 1542), the only one to reach adulthood, and the successor of his father.
A second stillborn daughter at Holyrood Palace in November 1512.
Alexander, Duke of Ross (Stirling Castle, 30 April 1514 – Stirling Castle, 18 December 1515), born after James's death.

Excursus
Mary Stewart, Countess of Arran
I marriage
Mary was married to her first husband, Thomas Boyd, Earl of Arran, when she was almost fourteen years old before 26 April 1467.
children
Lady Margaret Boyd (1468–1533[4]), married firstly, Alexander Forbes, 4th Lord Forbes; secondly Sir David Kennedy, 1st Earl of Cassilis
James Boyd, 2nd Lord Boyd of Kilmarnock (1469–1484), died unmarried.
II marriage
In early 1474, Mary married secondly as her second husband, James Hamilton, 1st Lord Hamilton, who was almost forty years her senior. They received a papal dispensation on 26 April 1476 thus legitimising the two children already born to them.
children
James Hamilton, 1st Earl of Arran (1475–1529), married firstly in 1490 Elizabeth Home by whom he had two daughters; he divorced Elizabeth in 1504. He married secondly in 1516, Janet Bethune, daughter of Sir David Bethune, 1st of Creich and Janet Duddlingston,[5] by whom he had three children including his heir, James Hamilton, Duke of Châtellerault, 2nd Earl of Arran (c.1516- 22 January 1575), heir presumptive to the Kingdom of Scotland (2 July 1536 – 22 May 1540), (April 1541- 8 December 1542), (14 December 1542 – 19 June 1566), and (29 July 1567 – 22 January 1575); Regent of Scotland (1542–1554).
Hon. Elizabeth Hamilton (died after April 1531), married on 9 April 1494, Matthew Stewart, 2nd Earl of Lennox, by whom she had issue. The Stewarts of Lennox, of whom Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, the second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, was the most notable, who derived his claim to the Scottish throne from Elizabeth's son John Stewart, 3rd Earl of Lennox.
Robert Hamilton, Seigneur d'Aubigny (21 March 1476 - 1543). He was born at Brodick Castle, Isle of Arran, Scotland. He died in 1543 in Torrence, Lanarkshire, Scotland, when he was 66 years old. According to some records, he married (Elizabeth?) Campbell, the daughter of Campbell (Goodman) of Glaister, or Glacester (Angus), the niece of the Sheriff of Ayr [the latter of whom also had connection to the earls of Lennox]. They had at least two (claimed) children: Janet Hamilton, born in 1500, who wed Alexander Burnet, 4th Baron & 9th Laird of Leys; and Matthew Hamilton, born in 1512, who wed Jean Muirhead of Torrence.

Excursus
James Hamilton, 1st Earl of Arran
I marriage
James Hamilton was married firstly, around 1490, to Elizabeth Home, daughter of Alexander Home, 2nd Lord Home by his second wife, Nichola Ker. The marriage was dissolved in 1506, when it was found that her first husband Thomas Hay, a son of John Hay, 1st Lord Hay of Yester, was still alive at the time of the wedding.
II marriage
Hamilton was married secondly, in November 1516, to Janet Bethune, daughter of Sir David Bethune of Creich,[5] and widow of Sir Robert Livingstone of Easter Wemyss, who had been killed at the Battle of Flodden.
children
Lady Helen Hamilton, who married Archibald Campbell, 4th Earl of Argyll
James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran (c. 1516 – 22 January 1575), who later became Duke of Châtelherault and governor of Scotland, during the minority of Mary, Queen of Scots.
Lady Janet Hamilton, who married Alexander Cunningham, 5th Earl of Glencairn.
A son, name unknown.

Excursus
Margaret of Guelders
marriage
In Lobith on 6 August 1454 she married Frederick I, Count Palatine of Simmern [when she was 18]
children
Katherine (1455 – 28 December 1522)
Stephen (25 February 1457 – 1488/9)
William (2 January 1458 – 1458)
John I (15 May 1459 – 27 January 1509)
Frederick (10 April 1460 – 22 November 1518)
Rupert (16 October 1461 – 19 April 1507). From 1492 until his death he was the forty-fifth bishop of Regensburg as Rupert II.
Anne (30 July 1465 – 15 July 1517)
Margaret (2 December 1466 – August 1506)
Helene (1467 – 21 February 1555)
William (20 April 1468 – 1481)

Excursus
John I, Count Palatine of Simmern
marriage
He married Joanna of Nassau-Saarbrücken the daughter of Johann II of Nassau-Saarbrücken on 29 September 1481 [when she was 17]
children
Friedrich (*/† 1490)
Johann II. (1492–1557), Pfalzgraf von Simmern
Friedrich (1494–?), Dompropst in Straßburg

Excursus
Adolf, Duke of Guelders
marriage
Adolf married Catharine of Bourbon (1440–1469), daughter of Charles I, Duke of Bourbon, in 1463. [when she was 23]
twin children
Philippa (1467–1547), married in 1485 René II, Duke of Lorraine (1451–1508)
Charles (1467–1538), later Duke of Guelders, married in 1518 with Elisabeth of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1494–1572), daughter of Henry I of Lüneburg.

Excursus
Philippa of Guelders, Duchess of Lorraine
marriage
To strengthen the ties between the Kingdom of France and the Duchy of Lorraine, she was chosen as the bride of René II, Duke of Lorraine (1451–1508). The marriage took place in Orléans on 1 September 1485. [when she was 18]
children
Charles (b. 17 August 1486, Nancy), d. young
Francis (5 July 1487, Pont-à-Mousson) (died shortly after birth)
Antoine, Duke of Lorraine (1489–1544)
Anne (19 December 1490, Bar-le-Duc – 1491)
Nicholas (9 April 1493, Nancy), d. young
Isabelle (2 November 1494, Lunéville – bef. 1508)
Claude, Duke of Guise (1496–1550), first Duke of Guise
John, Cardinal of Lorraine and Bishop of Metz (1498–1550)
Louis, Count of Vaudémont (1500–1528)
Claude and Catherine (twins) (24 November 1502, Bar-le-Duc), ...
... d. young
Francis, Count of Lambesc (1506–1525)

Excursus
John I, Duke of Cleves
marriage
On 22 April 1455 he married Elizabeth Countess of Nevers, daughter of John II, Count of Nevers. [she was 15/16]
children
John II, Duke of Cleves (13 April 1458 – 15 March 1521) married 3 November 1489 Matilda of Hesse
Adolf (1461–1525)
Engelbert, Count of Nevers (26 September 1462 – 21 November 1506) married 23 February 1489 Charlotte de Bourbon-Vendôme
Dietrich (1464)
Marie of Cleves (1465–1513)
Philip of Cleves, Bishop of Nevers, Amiens and Autun (1467–1505)

Excursus
John II, Duke of Cleves
curiosity:
He was called "The Babymaker" since he fathered sixty-three illegitimate children [1] before his marriage with Mathilde of Hesse in 1490.
marriage
Am 3. November 1489 heiratete er Mechthild von Hessen (* 1. Juli 1473; † 19. Februar 1505), Tochter des Landgrafen Heinrich III. von Hessen. [she was 16]
children
John III (1490–1539), his successor
Anna (1495–1567), married in 1518 with count Philip III of Waldeck-Eisenberg
Adolf (1498–1525), appointed by his father's cousin Philip of Cleves, Lord of Ravenstein and Wijnendale, as his successor, but died before Philip (1528)

Excursus
Engelbert von Kleve
marriage
Engelbert heiratete am 23. Februar 1489 auf königlichen Wunsch Charlotte de Bourbon, eine Tochter des Grafen von Vendôme, Jean VIII. de Bourbon. Nach dem Tod Engelberts trat sie in die Abtei von Fontevrault ein, wo sie am 14. Dezember 1520 starb.
children
1
2
3
4 died young
Charles II, Count of Nevers, married Marie of Albret, Countess of Rethel. (died in Louvre in 1521)
Louis († 1545), genannt Graf von Auxerre
François († 1545), Prior von Saint-Éloi in Paris

Excursus
Henry the Peaceful, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
marriage
Henry married Helen (1423–1471), daughter of Adolph I, Duke of Cleves, in 1436. [when she was 13]
child
Margaret (1450–1509), married William III, Count of Henneberg

Excursus
Adolph of Cleves, Lord of Ravenstein
marriage
Philip the Good of Burgundy and his wife, Isabel of Portugal, decided to arrange the marriage of their nephew Adolph, who became engaged to infanta Beatrice of Coimbra, daughter of Pedro, Duke of Coimbra. Beatrice had taken refuge in Burgundy, under her aunt’s protection, following the defeat of her father's army in the Battle of Alfarrobeira in Portugal in 1449. Adolph and Beatrice were married on 13 May 1453 [when she was 18]
children
Philip of Cleves (1456-1528)
Louise (1457-1458)

Excursus
Marie of Cleves, Duchess of Orléans
(I) marriage
At age fourteen, Marie married Charles of Valois, Duke of Orléans, a man 32 years her senior,[1] on 27 November 1440 in Saint-Omer.
children
Marie of Orléans (19 December 1457 – 1493); married John of Foix, Count of Étampes in 1476 [see above]
Louis XII of France (1462–1515)
Anne of Orléans (1464–1491); became the Abbess of Fontevrault and Poitiers.

Excursus
Philip the Good
I marriage
On 28 January 1405, Philip was named Count of Charolais in appanage of the duke and probably became engaged on the same day, at the age of 8, to Michelle of Valois [who was 14, while he was 12], a daughter of King Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria. They were married in June 1409.
child
Michelle had borne a daughter, Agnes, but she died in infancy.
II marriage
After Michelle's death in 1422, Philip married Bonne of Artois,[3] a daughter of Philip of Artois, Count of Eu, and also the widow of his uncle, Philip II, Count of Nevers, in Moulins-les-Engelbert on 30 November 1424. Bonne of Artois is sometimes confused with Philip's biological aunt, also named Bonne (a sister of John the Fearless who lived from 1379 to 1399), in part due to the papal dispensation required for the marriage, which made no distinction between a marital aunt and a biological aunt. Bonne of Artois lived only a year after Philip married her.
III marriage
Philip was married for a third time to Isabella of Portugal, a daughter of John I of Portugal and Philippa of Lancaster, in Bruges on 7 January 1430. [she was 33]
children
Anthony (September 30, 1430, Brussels – February 5, 1432, Brussels), Count of Charolais
Josse (April 24, 1432 – aft. May 6, 1432), Count of Charolais
Charles (10 November 1433 – 5 January 1477), Count of Charolais and Philip's successor as Duke of Burgundy, known as "Charles the Bold" or "Charles the Rash"

Excursus
Charles the Bold
I marriage
On 19 May 1440, he married Catherine of France (1428–1446), daughter of Charles VII of France and Marie of Anjou.[10] At the time of the marriage, she was 12 and he 6. She died at 18. [Bride Stories, anyone?]
II marriage
On 30 October 1454, he married Isabelle of Bourbon (1437–1465) [who was 17], daughter of Charles I of Bourbon.[10] He would have preferred to marry Anne of York (the daughter of Richard, Duke of York), but his father insisted that he fulfill the conditions of the Treaty of Arras, which committed him to marry a French princess. The marriage was a happy one ...
child
Mary of Burgundy (13 February 1457 – 27 March 1482)
III marriage
On 3 July 1468, Charles married Anne's sister, Margaret of York (1446–1503);[10] her siblings also included Edward IV of England, George, Duke of Clarence, and Richard III of England. The marriage was solemnized at Damme, near Bruges, by the bishop of Salisbury.

Excursus
Mary of Burgundy
marriage
Mary soon made her choice among the many suitors for her hand by selecting Archduke Maximilian of Austria, the future Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, who became her co-ruler.[4] The marriage took place at Ghent on the evening of 16 August 1477.[5] [when she was 20]
children
Philip the Handsome (22 July 1478 – 25 September 1506), who succeeded his mother as Philip IV of Burgundy and became Philip I of Castile through his marriage to Joanna of Castile (known to history as "Juana la Loca")
Margaret (10 January 1480 – 1 December 1530), married to first to Juan, Prince of Asturias, the son and heir of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile, and secondly to Philibert II, Duke of Savoy.
Francis (2 September 1481 – 26 December 1481).
birth and death
Her birth, according to the court chronicler Georges Chastellain, was attended by a clap of thunder ringing from the otherwise clear twilight sky. Her godfather was Louis, Dauphin of France, in exile in Burgundy at that time; he named her for his mother Marie of Anjou. Reactions to the child were mixed: the baby's grandfather, Duke Philip the Good, was unimpressed, and "chose not to attend the [baptism] as it was only for a girl", whereas her grandmother Isabella of Portugal was delighted at the birth of a granddaughter.[2] Her illegitimate aunt Anne was assigned as her governess. ... In 1482, a falcon hunt in the woods near Wijnendale Castle was organised by Adolph of Cleves, Lord of Ravenstein, who lived in the castle. Mary loved riding and was hunting with Maximilian and knights of the Court when her horse tripped, threw her in a ditch, and then landed on top of her, breaking her back. She died several weeks later, on 27 March, from internal injuries, having made a detailed will. She was buried in the Church of Our Lady in Bruges on April 3rd, 1482.[6] Her 2-year-old daughter, Margaret of Austria, was sent in vain to France, to marry the Dauphin, in an attempt to please Louis XI not to invade the territories owned by Mary of Burgundy.

Excursus
Philip I of Castile
marriage
On 20 October 1496, he married Joanna (6 November 1479 – 12 April 1555), daughter of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile, in Lier, Belgium. [she was 16, going on 17]
children
Eleanor (1498–1558), queen consort of Portugal and France
Charles V (1500–1558), king of Spain, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
Isabella (1501–1526), queen consort of Denmark, Norway and Sweden
Ferdinand I (1503–1564), king of Bohemia and Hungary, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
Mary (1505–1558), queen consort of Hungary and Bohemia, governor of the Spanish Netherlands
Catherine (1507–1578), queen consort of Portugal

Excursus
Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Savoy
I real marriage
In order to achieve an alliance with Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon, Maximilian started negotiating the marriage of their only son and heir, John, Prince of Asturias, to Margaret, as well as the marriage of their daughter, Juana, to Philip. Margaret left the Netherlands for Spain late in 1496. The marriage took place in 1497. [when she was 17]
child
Margaret was left pregnant, but on 2 April 1498 she gave birth to a premature stillborn daughter.
II marriage
In 1501, Margaret married Philibert II, Duke of Savoy (1480–1504).
widowhood
This marriage was childless as well, and he died after three years. A grief-stricken Margaret threw herself out of a window, but was saved. After being persuaded to bury her husband, she had his heart embalmed so she could keep it with her forever.[3] She vowed never to marry again. Her court historian and poet Jean Lemaire de Belges gave her the title "Dame de deuil" (Lady of Mourning).[4]
death
In November 1530, one of Margaret's maids broke a glass goblet. A splinter of glass went into Margaret's foot and the wound became gangrenous. Her doctors strongly recommended that she agree to having her foot amputated. She gave her consent for the operation, received the sacrament, and revised her will. Before the amputation could be performed, however, she died, apparently from an overdose of opium given to her in preparation for the operation. She died at Mechelen at the age of fifty, after appointing her nephew, Charles V, as her universal and sole heir. She is buried at Bourg-en-Bresse, in the magnificent mausoleum that she ordered for her second husband and herself.

Excursus
Anne of Burgundy
childless marriage

Excursus
Agnes of Burgundy, Duchess of Bourbon
marriage
Elle épousa à Autun le 17 septembre 1425 Charles Ier, duc de Bourbon et d'Auvergne [she was 18]
children
John of Bourbon (1426–1488), Duke of Bourbon
Mary of Bourbon (1428–1448), married in 1444 John II, Duke of Lorraine
Philip of Bourbon (1430–1440), Lord of Beaujeu
Charles of Bourbon (Château de Moulins 1434–1488, Lyon), Cardinal and Archbishop of Lyon and Duke of Bourbon
Isabella of Bourbon (1436–1465), married Charles, Duke of Burgundy. Isabella was mother of Mary of Burgundy.
Peter of Bourbon, (1438–1503, Château de Moulins), Duke of Bourbon
Louis of Bourbon (1438 – 30 August 1482, murdered), Bishop of Liège
Margaret of Bourbon (5 February 1439 – 1483, Château du Pont-Ains), married in Moulins on 6 April 1472 Philip II, Duke of Savoy
Catharine of Bourbon (Liège, 1440 – 21 May 1469, Nijmegen), married on 28 December 1463 in Bruges Adolf II, Duke of Guelders
Joanna of Bourbon (1442–1493, Brussels), married in Brussels in 1467 John II of Chalon, Prince of Orange
Jacques of Bourbon (1445–1468, Bruges), Count of Montpensier. Unmarried

[I get a feeling of déjà vu, and I think I will have no more excursus, only the kings. Otherwise I might risk too much counting same couples twice.]

Louis X of France
first marriage
On 21 September 1305, at age 16, he married Margaret of Burgundy and they had a daughter, Joan.
second marriage
Margaret of Burgundy died on 14 August 1315 and Louis remarried five days later, on 19 August to Clementia of Hungary, the daughter of Charles Martel of Anjou and the niece of Louis' own uncle and close advisor, Charles of Valois. Louis and Clementia were crowned at Reims in August 1315.
children:
Joan II of Navarre (French: Jeanne; 28 January 1312[1] – 6 October 1349)
John I of France John I (15–20 November 1316), called the Posthumous, was King of France and Navarre, as the posthumous son and successor of Louis X, for the five days he lived in 1316.

King Philip VI
first marriage
In July 1313, Philip married Joan the Lame (French: Jeanne), daughter of Robert II, Duke of Burgundy,[20] and Agnes of France, the youngest daughter of Louis IX. In an ironic twist to his "male" ascendancy to the throne, the intelligent, strong-willed Joan, an able regent of France during the king's long military campaigns, was said to be the brains behind the throne and the real ruler of France.
children
John II (26 April 1319 – 8 April 1364).
Marie (1326 – 22 September 1333), who married John of Brabant, the son and heir of John III, Duke of Brabant, but died shortly afterwards.
Louis (born and died 17 January 1329)
Louis (8 June 1330 – 23 June 1330).
son [John?] (born and died 2 October 1333).
A son (28 May 1335), stillborn.
Philip (1 July 1336 – 1 September 1375), Duke of Orléans
Joan (born and died November 1337).
A son (born and died summer 1343).
second marriage
After Joan died in 1349, Philip married Blanche of Navarre,[22] daughter of Joan II and Philip III of Navarre, on 11 January 1350.
daughter
Joan (Blanche) (May 1351 – 16 September 1371),[21] who was intended to marry John I of Aragon, but who died during the journey.
Charles V
Joanna (September 1357 – 21 October 1360), interred at Saint-Antoine-des-Champs Abbey.
Bonne (1358 – 7 December 1360, Paris, France), interred beside her older sister.
John (Vincennes, 6 June 1366 – 21 December 1366), interred at Saint Denis Basilica.
Charles VI (3 December 1368 – 22 October 1422), King of France.
Marie (Paris, 27 February 1370 – June 1377, Paris).
Louis (13 March 1372 – 23 November 1407), Duke of Orléans.
Isabella (Paris, 24 July 1373 – 13 February 1377, Paris).
John (1374/76 – died young).
Catherine (Paris, 4 February 1378 – November 1388, buried at Abbaye De Maubuisson, France), m. John of Berry, Count of Montpensier (son of John, Duke of Berry).

Charles VI
Joanna (September 1357 – 21 October 1360), interred at Saint-Antoine-des-Champs Abbey.
Bonne (1358 – 7 December 1360, Paris, France), interred beside her older sister.
John (Vincennes, 6 June 1366 – 21 December 1366), interred at Saint Denis Basilica.
Charles VI (3 December 1368 – 22 October 1422), King of France.
Marie (Paris, 27 February 1370 – June 1377, Paris).
Louis (13 March 1372 – 23 November 1407), Duke of Orléans.
Isabella (Paris, 24 July 1373 – 13 February 1377, Paris).
John (1374/76 – died young).
Catherine (Paris, 4 February 1378 – November 1388, buried at Abbaye De Maubuisson, France), m. John of Berry, Count of Montpensier (son of John, Duke of Berry).

King Charles VII
marriage
The wedding took place in April 1422 at Bourges. The wedding made her Queen of France, but as far as it is known, Marie of Anjou was never crowned.
children
Louis XI (3 July 1423 – 30 August 1483)
John 19 September 1426 Lived for a few hours.
Radegonde after 29 August 1428 19 March 1444 Betrothed to Sigismund, Archduke of Austria on 22 July 1430.
Catherine after 29 August 1428 13 July 1446 Married Charles the Bold, no issue.
James 1432 2 March 1437 Died aged five.
Yolande 23 September 1434 23/29 August 1478 Married Amadeus IX, Duke of Savoy, had issue.
Joan 4 May 1435 4 May 1482 Married John II, Duke of Bourbon, no issue.
Philip 4 February 1436 11 June 1436 Died in infancy.
Margaret May 1437 24 July 1438 Died aged one.
Joanna 7 September 1438 26 December 1446 Twin of Marie, died aged eight.
Marie 7 September 1438 14 February 1439 Twin of Joanna, died in infancy.
Isabella 1441 Died young.
Magdalena 1 December 1443 21 January 1495 Married Gaston of Foix, Prince of Viana, had issue.
Charles 12 December 1446 24 May 1472 Died without legitimate issue.


Here, I take a break, feeling, my accumulated material on 5 posts is enough for some statistic significance.

Sources, diverse wikipedian articles, starting with that on St. Louis IX:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_IX_of_France

Next time - the statistics, or some of them./HGL

Does my Interpretation of Mahabharata and Ramayana Offend Hindoos?


Perhaps it should - unless it shakes them up to check out how it fits the facts.

My interpretation of these epics is no more a Hindoo one, than the Hindoo interpretation of the Gospels (Hindoos often have one, especially in the West) is a Christian one.

Any religion claiming to be the true one, and the one which is so, must be one of the ones claiming it, must have at least in principle a fairly complete answer to the other religions, the false ones.

If Hinduism claims to be true, it needs, especially in the West, an interpretation of the Gospels, and how we Christians "misunderstood" Our Lord Jesus Christ.

If Christianity claims to be true, it needs, since at least 16th Century Portuguese contacts, or even earlier, the Thomas Christians, some kind of attitude about the story of Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Mine is, the early predecessors of Hindooism after the Flood clang to the memory of Rama (in Douay-Reims called Regma), turned young Nimrod (his brother, who started out as a good and protective brother, before he went bad) into Hanuman (he had perhaps a close relation with monkeys - some explain his "beginning to be a giant" with inoculation with monkey genes, but that could be after his protection of Rama, or the most catastrophic results, at Babel / Göbekli Tepe could have come after that), and put the memory of a pre-Flood set of heros, among which another Cush than the one so called in the Bible, I presume Jubal, the flute player, into the Mahabharata and Puranas. And counted years (of what is now known as "kali yuga") from his death, before the Flood. THEN pushing back the tale of Rama to well before him, so India could seem a continuity from Rama's post-Flood settlement "into" what was actually a memory of Nod, East of Eden.

If this offends a Hindoo, let him consider, I am not pretending to be a Mahabharata or Ramayana or Puranas scholar, I am simply giving a Christian view on why Hindoos believe what they traditionally believe. Obviously, this involves Hinduism being wrong, just as my interpretation of Mohammed involves Islam being wrong, or of Joseph Smith Mormonism being wrong. A religion is an exclusive thing, if one is right, the others are wrong. Since I am a Catholic, I believe other interpretations of Christianity, and non-Christian religions, are wrong. If that offends all Hindoos in the world, I will still not change it.

I said sth about fitting the facts. Mahabharata seems to involve trace memories - not a full accurate, but partial accurate descriptions - of nuclear warfare. Put this in archaeological contexts like the timespan of carbon dating I consider post-Flood, it won't fit very well. Put it pre-Flood, and the worst scenes could have been covered by mud in the Flood, which afterwards became the Himalayas. God's Taj Mahal over so many men suffering so much evil, so much heroism leading to so little good.

Hans Georg Lundahl
Paris Beaubourg
Second Friday of
Pentecost Novena
St Venantius, Martyr
18.V.2018

Wednesday, May 16, 2018

I was excited to find Jesse Collings as Honorary Freeman of the City of Birmingham


So, "Birmingham" ... was Tolkien one?

Honorary Freedom of the City of Birmingham
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Honorary_Freedom_of_the_City_of_Birmingham


Individually, by name, no.

During his lifetime, no.

But so to speak, posthumously, in his regiment, yes.

Royal Regiment of Fusiliers 7 May 1975


OK, he was dead, but was it his old regiment?

Royal Regiment of Fusiliers
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Regiment_of_Fusiliers


The Royal Regiment of Fusiliers was formed on 23 April 1968 as part of the reforms of the British Army that saw the creation of 'large infantry regiments', by the amalgamation of the four English Fusilier regiments:[1]

  • Royal Northumberland Fusiliers
  • Royal Warwickshire Fusiliers
  • Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regiment)
  • Lancashire Fusiliers


Now, is any of the four his old regiment? Yes.

J. R. R. Tolkien
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._R._R._Tolkien


Military career
Allegiance United Kingdom
Service/branch British Army
Years of service 1915–1920
Rank Lieutenant
Unit Lancashire Fusiliers
Battles/wars First World War

  • Battle of the Somme


So, in a sense, Tolkien was at last given this magnificent Medieval Title : Freeman of the City of Birmingham. Chesterton lacked the local attachment, but a man he admired, like Tolkien admired him, Jesse Collings, had it and it was fitting he should have some shade of it too:

The Freedom of the City is an honour bestowed by a municipality upon a valued member of the community, or upon a visiting celebrity or dignitary. Arising from the medieval practice of granting respected citizens freedom from serfdom, the tradition still lives on in countries such as the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia, Canada, South Africa and New Zealand – although today the title of "freeman" confers no special privileges. The Freedom of the City can also be granted by municipal authorities to military units which have earned the city's trust; in this context, it is sometimes called the Freedom of Entry. This allows them the freedom to parade through the city, and is an affirmation of the bond between the regiment and the citizenry.


Incidentally, this seems to correct one problematic passage I made earlier on, of him riding into battle:

1916 is when Tolkien married. And next year, he rode into WW-I, perhaps on a white horse. Unless its colours were more like those of Shadowfaxe.


Hmmm .... Fusiliers are (blushing) Infantry ... sorry./HGL

Saturday, May 12, 2018

Hans, Alexander, Sophie, Willy, Kurt ... une Rose Blanche


Je viens de noter, procurez-le vous, dans le dernier Historia (Mai 2018), Rose Blanche contre Croix Gammée. Le dossier entier, sur p. 54, est intitulé "seuls, ils ont osé défier Hitler", ce qui est faux et ne rend pas compte de par exemple l'évêque Clemens August Graf von Galen, évêque ou archévêque de Munster.

Leur résistance contre la guerre et les atrocités contre les Juifs a inspiré ma propre activité en opposition contre l'avortement et la psychiatrie, l'école obligatoire et les enlèvements d'enfants, et contre les contraceptifs.

Je viens de lire leur roman, quasiment - les mémoires de Sophie Scholl, il me semble - à Sysslebäck (un lieu-dit où j'avais été professeur, se prononce comme deux oiseaux qui se "sucent les becs"). J'ai peu, mais quelque quand même, appris de nouveau en lisant l'article.

Sur la BBC, à l'été 1943, Thomas Mann salue le sacrifice de ces "courageux, magnifiques jeunes gens", alors que la RAF largue des milliers d'exemplaires de leur dernier tract au-dessus des villes allemandes.


J'imagine très bien Christopher Tolkien en service en cette opération - noble, mais peut-être contreproductive. Je ne sais pas. Quand un tract est lâché par des gens qui plus tard lâchent des bombes sur Dresde, bon, ce n'est pas totalement un compliment pour le patriotisme de l'auteur - et la Rose Blanche était pourtant très patriote./HGL

Friday, May 11, 2018

On m'a demandé pourquoi je suis converti au catholicisme


Simplement, c'est l'Église que Jésus-Christ, Notre Sauveur et Seigneur, fonda.

Plus en détail : ce n'est pas recevable de dire que celle-ci ne serait pas accessible et identifiable. Il a dit : une ville fondée sur une montagne ne peut pas être caché. Encore, l'Église qu'Il fonda est "pilier et fondement de la vérité" donc comparable à une lampe. Mais nul ne va allumer une lampe pour la mettre sous le boisseau. Et encore, Il l'a promis directement, disant aux 11 Apôtres qu'Il sera avec eux tous les jours (pas juste toujours, mais, tous les jours) et que des signes les suivront.

Encore plus en détail : donc, ce ne peut pas être une église issue de la Réforme. Celles-ci prétendent normalement, soit sue la vraie église aurait sombré et devait être purifié des siècles après d'avoir sombré, soit qu'elle ait cessé d'exister et soit revenue à l'existence grâce à la Réforme. Cette dernière version est davantage logique mais aussi plus directement contre les Promesses, je ne sais pas s'il y a qui le prétendent à part la mouvance restaurationniste (dont Church of God ou T de J). Et encore améliore leur théologie, mais empirent leur histoire en prétendant que la vraie église aurait toujours existé à côté de l'Église catholique, sous divers noms.

En Suède, l'Église dite "apostolique" (non issue de la réforme, mais prétendant être en continuité directe avec la première église, donc identique) était au moins la Moyen Âge classique comme tardif l'Église catholique. Certains voudraient prétendre qu'il y ait eu des "orthodoxes" (mais avant le schisme de 1053, donc tout aussi catholiques, selon l'ecclésiologie catholique) en Suède pendant le Haut Moyen Âge, les siècles considérés comme païens ... mon choix entre Catholiques et Orthodoxes a pu être superficiel, celui contre le Luthéranisme ne l'était pas. (Après, j'ai essayé les Orthodoxes, et je suis revenu).

À part l'impossibilité théologique d'une réforme comme envisagé par les frères Petri et Gustave Wasa, elle a été violente et révolutionnaire. On avait des lycées au Moyen Âge, les lycées protestants datent de la reine Christina, arrière-petit-fille du roi Réformateur./HGL

Thursday, May 3, 2018

De tribus impostoribus


Georges Minois a écrit un livre dans lequel il dit, que Frédérick II le Stauffer n'ait nullement écrit ce livre. On l'aurait inventé de lui, pour démoniser le pouvoir impérial du Saint Empire Romain de Nation Germanique dans la lutte entre celui-ci et le pouvoir papal. Pourtant, ce livre décrié a fini par exister, sous les Lumières.

Qui crie "gare au loup" ...

Amazon : Le Traité des trois imposteurs : Histoire d'un livre blasphématoire qui n'existait pas
Broché – 7 janvier 2009
de Georges Minois (Auteur)
https://www.amazon.fr/Trait%C3%A9-trois-imposteurs-blasph%C3%A9matoire-nexistait/dp/2226183124