Tuesday, November 28, 2017

Were Middle Ages Healthier? Yes.

I was Just Answering Sn Claiming That Life Expectancy has Been Around 30 · When I checked with "children of" it seems to be true · Were Middle Ages Healthier? Yes.

Citing wiki again, and again, we deal with "children of":

Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor
William (929 – 2 March 968) was Archbishop of Mainz from 17 December 954 until his death. He was the son of the Emperor Otto I the Great and a Slavic mother.
Liutgarde of Saxony (931 – 18 November 953), a member of the Ottonian dynasty, was Duchess consort of Lorraine from 947 until her death by her marriage with Duke Conrad the Red. She and Conrad became progenitors of the Salian dynasty.
Liudolf (c. 930 – 6 September 957), a member of the Ottonian dynasty, was Duke of Swabia from 950 until 954. His rebellion in 953/54 led to a major crisis of the rising German kingdom. ... He died unexpectedly of fever amidst his victorious campaign at Pombia, near Novara, on September 6 and was buried in St. Alban's Abbey, Mainz.
Henry (952–954)
Bruno (probably 954–957)
Matilda (December 955 – 999), also known as Mathilda and Mathilde, was the first Princess-Abbess of Quedlinburg. She was the daughter of Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, and his second wife, Adelaide of Italy.
Otto II (955 – December 7, 983), called the Red (Rufus), was Holy Roman Emperor from 973 until his death in 983. A member of the Ottonian dynasty, Otto II was the youngest and sole surviving son of Otto the Great and Adelaide of Italy.

Otto II
Adelaide I (German: Adelheid; 973/74[a] – 14 January 1044 or 1045), a member of the royal Ottonian dynasty was the second Princess-abbess of Quedlinburg from 999 and Abbess of Gandersheim from 1039 until her death, as well as a highly influential kingmaker of medieval Germany.
Sophia I (September 975[1] – 30 January 1039), a member of the royal Ottonian dynasty, was Abbess of Gandersheim from 1002, and from 1011 also Abbess of Essen. The daughter of Emperor Otto II and his consort Theophanu, she was an important kingmaker in medieval Germany.
Matilda of Germany or Matilde of Saxony (Summer 979 - November 1025, Echtz[1]) was the third daughter of Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor and his wife, Empress Theophanu.

Shortly after her birth, Matilda was sent to Essen Abbey, where her older cousin Mathilde was abbess, Matilda was educated here. It was presumed that Matilda would stay in the Abbey and become an Abbess like her older sisters Adelheid I, Abbess of Quedlinburg and Sophia I, Abbess of Gandersheim.

However, Matilda lived a different life from her two sisters, she was to marry Ezzo, Count Palatine of Lotharingia. According to the Historian Thietmar of Merseburg Matilda's brother Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor did not like the idea of the marriage at first. The family gave the couple large gifts to secure an adequate standard of living. The Empress Theophanu had consented to the marriage. Ezzo then took Matilda out of the Abbey where she had lived. However, Abbess Mathilde had vainly refused to surrender the girl. Later romantic embellishments even claimed Ezzo had previously been secretly in love with the young Matilda. Ezzo took Matilda from the Abbey to marry her.

Matilda's mother Theophanu had always agreed to the wedding but Matilda's cousin and teacher Abbess Matilde did not agree to the marriage. Without the consent of Matilda's mother the marriage would not happen with certainty, it is even likely that this marriage was to ensure the power of Otto III. The family had extensive estates in the Lower Rhine and Mosel. Ezzo's mother came from the House of Swabia and so Ezzo laid claims to these lands. Matilda received them out of Ottonian possessions and gave them to her husband.

Otto III (June/July 980 – 23 January 1002) was Holy Roman Emperor from 996 until his early death in 1002. A member of the Ottonian dynasty, Otto III was the only son of the Emperor Otto II and his wife Theophanu.

Liudolf (c. 1000–10 April 1031), Count of Zutphen.
Otto I (died 1047), Count Palatine of Lotharingia and later Duke of Swabia as Otto II
Hermann II (995–1056), Archbishop of Cologne.
Theophanu (died 1056), Abbess of Essen and Gerresheim.
Richeza (died 21 March 1063), Queen of Poland
Adelheid (died c. 1030), Abbess of Nijvel (Nivelles).
Heylwig, Abbess of Neuss.
Mathilde, Abbess of Dietkirchen and Villich.
Sophie, Abbess of St. Maria, Mainz.
Ida (died 1060), Abbess of Cologne and Gandersheim Abbey (founded in 852 by her ancestor Liudolf, Duke of Saxony).

Richeza of Lotharingia/Mieszko II Lambert
Casimir I the Restorer (Polish: Kazimierz I Odnowiciel; b. Kraków, 25 July 1016 – d. Poznań, 28 November 1058), was Duke of Poland of the Piast dynasty and the de jure monarch of the entire country from 1034 until his death.
Richeza of Poland, Queen of Hungary
Gertrude-Olisava (c. 1025[1] – 4 January 1108), princess of Poland, was the daughter of King Mieszko II of Poland and Queen Richeza of Lotharingia, and the great-granddaughter of German Emperor Otto II.

Richeza of Poland, Queen of Hungary/King Béla I of Hungary
King Géza I of Hungary (c. 1040 – 25 April 1077)
King Ladislaus I of Hungary (c. 1040 – 29 July 1095)
Duke Lampert of Hungary (after 1050 – c. 1095)
Sophia (after 1050 – 18 June 1095), wife firstly of Markgraf Ulrich I of Carniola, and secondly of duke Magnus I of Saxony
Euphemia (after 1050 – 2 April 1111), wife of Prince Otto I of Olomouc
Helen I of Hungary (after 1050 – c. 1091), wife of Demetrius Zvonimir of Croatia

Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor
Otto III never married and never fathered any children due to his early death. At the time of his death, the Byzantine princess Zoe, second daughter of Emperor Constantine VIII was traveling to Italy to marry him.

Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor
the last member of the Ottonian dynasty of Emperors as he had no children.

Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor
Henry III (28 October 1016 – 5 October 1056), called the Black or the Pious, was a member of the Salian Dynasty of Holy Roman Emperors. He was the eldest son of Conrad II of Germany and Gisela of Swabia.[1] His father made him Duke of Bavaria (as Henry VI) in 1026, after the death of Duke Henry V.
Beatrix b.1020c d.1036
Matilda of Franconia (c. 1027[1] – 1034) was a daughter of Emperor Conrad II and Gisela of Swabia from the Salian dynasty.[2] Matilda’s elder brother was Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor.

At a meeting with King Henry I of France in Deville in Lorraine in May 1033, Conrad agreed to marry five-year-old Matilda to Henry.[2] However, before she could marry, she died in early 1034. Her marriage was arranged to confirm a peace compact agreed between Henry and Conrad.

Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor
Beatrice (1037 – 13 July 1061), abbess of Quedlinburg and Gandersheim
Adelaide II (1045, Goslar – 11 January 1096), abbess of Gandersheim from 1061 and Quedlinburg from 1063
Gisela (1047, Ravenna – 6 May 1053)
Matilda (October 1048 – 12 May 1060, Pöhlde), married 1059 Rudolf of Rheinfelden, duke of Swabia and anti-king (1077)
Henry IV (German: Heinrich IV; 11 November 1050 – 7 August 1106) ascended to King of the Germans[1] in 1056.[2] From 1084 until his forced abdication in 1105, he was also referred to as the King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperor. He was the third emperor of the Salian dynasty and one of the most powerful and important figures of the 11th century. His reign was marked by the Investiture Controversy with the Papacy, and he was excommunicated five times by three different popes. Several civil wars over his throne took place in both Italy and Germany. He died of illness, soon after defeating his son's army near Visé, in Lorraine, France.
Conrad (1052, Regensburg – 10 April 1055), duke of Bavaria (from 1054)
Judith (1054, Goslar – 14 March 1092 or 1096), married firstly 1063 Solomon of Hungary and secondly 1089 Ladislaus I Herman, duke of Poland.

Judith of Swabia
w. Solomon, King of Hungary (1053 – 1087), m. in 1065-1066
Sophia (d. about 1100), married Count Poppo of Berg-Schelklingen
w. Duke Władysław I Herman (c. 1044 – 4 June 1102), m. in 1088
Sophia (b. c. 1089 – d. bef. 12 May 1112), married bef. 1108 to Yaroslav Sviatopolkovich, Prince of Volhynia, son of Sviatopolk II of Kiev.
Agnes (b. c. 1090 – d. 29 December 1127), Abbess of Quedlinburg (1110) and Gandersheim (1111).
Adelaide (b. c. 1091 – d. 25/26 March 1127), married bef. 1118 to Dietrich III, Count of Vohburg and Margrave of the Northern March.
a daughter (b. c. 1092 – d. bef. 1111), married c. 1111 with a Polish lord.

Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor
First marriage
Adelheid (1070 – bef. 4 June 1079).
Henry (1/2 August 1071 – 2 August 1071).
Agnes (summer 1072/early 1073 – 24 September 1143), married firstly Frederick I, Duke of Swabia and secondly Leopold III, Margrave of Austria.
Conrad (12 February 1074 – 27 July 1101), later Roman-German King and King of Italy.
Mathilde [ref:] Morkinskinna records that Magnus III of Norway “was much smitten” with “the emperor's daughter…with whom he had exchanged messages…Matilda”. No other reference to this alleged daughter has been found. Andersson, T. M. and Gade, K. E. (trans.) (2000) Morkinskinna (Cornell), 58, p. 307. [Magnus III married a Swedish princess, Margaret, and so Matilda presumably died young.]
Henry V (11 August 1081/86 – 23 May 1125), later Roman-German King and Holy Roman Emperor.
Second marriage
no issue.

Agnes of Waiblingen

First marriage, In 1079, aged seven, Agnes was betrothed to Frederick, a member of the Hohenstaufen dynasty; at the same time, Henry IV invested Frederick as the new duke of Swabia.[2] The couple married in 1086, when Agnes was fourteen. They had eleven children, named in a document found in the abbey of Lorsch:
Neben den Söhnen Herzog Friedrich II. und Konrad III. ist eine Tochter Gertrud nachweisbar, die Hermann von Stahleck heiratete. Eine weitere Tochter soll Bertrada (Berta von Boll) sein.[1] Diese und weitere Angaben über Kinder, die Hansmartin Decker-Hauff aufgrund von ihm gefälschter Lorcher Quellen machte, haben sich als Phantasieprodukte erwiesen.[2]

[The document from Lorch is by Klaus Graf considered as a forgery.

Hedwig-Eilike (1088–1110), married Friedrich, Count of Legenfeld
Bertha-Bertrade (1089–1120), married Adalbert, Count of Elchingen
Frederick II (1090 – 6 April 1147), called the One-Eyed, was Duke of Swabia from 1105 until his death, the second from the Hohenstaufen dynasty.
Conrad III (1093 – 15 February 1152) was the first King of Germany of the Hohenstaufen dynasty. He was the son of Duke Frederick I of Swabia and Agnes, a daughter of the Salian Emperor Henry IV.
Heinrich (1096–1105)
Beatrix (1098–1130), became an abbess
Kunigunde-Cuniza (1100–1120/1126), wife of Henry X, Duke of Bavaria (1108–1139)
Sophia, married a count Adalbert
Fides-Gertrude, married Hermann III, Count Palatine of the Rhine

Second marriage:
Following Frederick's death in 1105,[4] Agnes married Leopold III (1073-1136), the Margrave of Austria (1095-1136).[5] According to a legend, a veil lost by Agnes and found by Leopold years later while hunting was the instigation for him to found the Klosterneuburg Monastery.

Leopold (German: Luitpold, c. 1108 – 18 October 1141), known as Leopold the Generous (German: Luitpold der Freigiebige), was Margrave of Austria as Leopold IV from 1136, and Duke of Bavaria as Leopold I from 1139 until his death in 1141.
Henry II (German: Heinrich; 1112 – 13 January 1177), called Jasomirgott, a member of the House of Babenberg,[1] was Count Palatine of the Rhine from 1140 to 1141, Duke of Bavaria and Margrave of Austria from 1141 to 1156 (as Henry XI), and the first Duke of Austria from 1156 until his death.
Berta, married Heinrich of Regensburg
Agnes, "one of the most famous beauties of her time", married Wladyslaw II of Poland, Agnes of Babenberg (German: Agnes von Babenberg, Polish: Agnieszka Babenberg; b. ca. 1108/13 – d. 24/25 January 1163), was a German noblewoman, a scion of the Franconian House of Babenberg and by marriage High Duchess of Poland and Duchess of Silesia.
Uta, wife of Liutpold von Plain
Otto of Freising (Otto Frisingensis) (c. 1114 – 22 September 1158) was a German churchman and chronicler. He was Otto I Bishop of Freising as from 1138.
Conrad I of Babenberg was Bishop of Passau from 1148/1149 - 1164. He was the son of Leopold III, Margrave of Austria and Agnes von Waiblingen and also Archbishop of Salzburg (as Conrad II) (* um 1115; † 28. September 1168 in Salzburg)
Elizabeth, married Hermann, Count of Winzenburg
Judith (or Jutta, sometimes called Julitta or Ita in Latin sources; c. 1115/1120 – after 1168), a member of the House of Babenberg, was Marchioness of Montferrat from 1135 until her death, by her marriage with Marquess William V.
Gertrude of Babenberg (Czech: Gertruda Babenberská; c. 1118 – 8 April 1150), a member of the House of Babenberg, was Duchess consort of Bohemia from 1140 until her death, by her marriage to the Přemyslid duke Vladislaus II.

[I have noted, Bohemian Queens tend to die young.]

Judith of Babenberg
w. William V. of Montferrat
William of Montferrat (early 1140s – 1177), also called William Longsword (modern Italian Guglielmo Lungaspada; original Occitan Guilhem Longa-Espia), was the Count of Jaffa and Ascalon, the eldest son of William V, Marquess of Montferrat and Judith of Babenberg. He was the older brother of Conrad, Boniface, Azalaïs, and Renier, and a cousin of both Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor and Louis VII of France.
Conrad of Montferrat (Italian: Corrado del Monferrato; Piedmontese: Conrà ëd Monfrà) (died 28 April 1192) was a north Italian nobleman, one of the major participants in the Third Crusade. He was the de facto King of Jerusalem (as Conrad I) by marriage from 24 November 1190, but officially elected only in 1192, days before his death. He was also marquis of Montferrat from 1191. (Monferrato, 1140 circa – Acri, 28 aprile 1192)
Boniface I, usually known as Boniface of Montferrat (Italian: Bonifacio del Monferrato; Greek: Βονιφάτιος Μομφερρατικός, Vonifatios Momferratikos) (c. 1150 – 4 September 1207), was Marquess of Montferrat (from 1192), the leader of the Fourth Crusade (1201–04) and the King of Thessalonica (from 1205).
Frederick of Montferrat, Bishop of Alba (Federico (†1180), che divenne vescovo di Alba;)
Renier of Montferrat (in Italian, Ranieri di Monferrato) (1162–1183) was the fifth son of William V of Montferrat and Judith of Babenberg. He became son-in-law of the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos and Caesar in 1180, and was later murdered in a Byzantine power-struggle.

[Guess why it was not to Byzantium I was looking for a less murderlusty and healthier climate?]

Agnes of Montferrat (1202); married Count Guido Guerra III Guidi of Modigliana.[1] The marriage was annulled on grounds of childlessness before 1180, when Guido remarried, and Agnes entered the convent of Santa Maria di Rocca delle Donne.
Azalaïs of Montferrat (also Adelasia or Alasia) (1150–1232) was marchioness and regent of Saluzzo.
An unidentified daughter, who married Albert, Marquess of Malaspina.

Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor
the fourth and last ruler of the Salian dynasty. [No children? Wrong:]
Die Ehe mit Mathilde blieb ohne männliche Nachkommen. Eine einzige Quelle überliefert eine Tochter Bertha. Sie wurde 1117 mit dem Grafen Ptolemeo II. von Tusculum verheiratet.[93] Die Verbindung des Kaisers mit der führenden Adelsschicht Roms durch eine Heirat war einzigartig.[94] In der Auseinandersetzung mit dem Papst und im Kampf um die Vorherrschaft in Italien sollten die Tuskulaner als kaiserliche Parteigänger durch diese Ehebindung besonders geehrt werden.[95]

Lothair II/III, Holy Roman Emperor
Gertrude of Süpplingenburg (18 April 1115 – 18 April 1143) was Duchess consort of Bavaria from 1127 to 1138, Margravine consort of Tuscany from 1136 to 1139, and Duchess consort of Saxony from 1137 to 1138. From 1142 she was Margravine consort of Austria and again Duchess consort of Bavaria until her death. She was Regent of Saxony during the minority of her son in 1139-1142.

Gertrude of Süpplingenburg
First marriage
w. Henry the Proud, Duke of Bavaria since 1126. The lavish wedding ceremony was held on 29 May 1127 on the Lech fields near Augsburg. [She was 12]
Henry the Lion (German: Heinrich der Löwe; 1129/1131[1] – 6 August 1195[1]) was a member of the Welf dynasty and Duke of Saxony, as Henry III, from 1142, and Duke of Bavaria, as Henry XII, from 1156, the duchies of which he held until 1180.

Second marriage
w. Gertrude and Henry II married on 1 May 1142 in Brunswick.
Richenza (b. 1143 - d. 1200), later wife of Landgrave Heinrich V of Steffling. The marriage produced no male heirs, as Gertrude died in childbirth at Klosterneuburg Monastery in Austria on 18 April 1143, which was her 28th birthday. She was buried at Schottenstift, Vienna.

Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor
[First Stauffer, I leave off here for now.]

And after the generous citations from wiki [interspersed with own square brackets comments], here is the counting together:

Ladies : DY DY DY 06 07 09 12 16 18 20 22
Ladies : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11
22 23 24 28 28 31 32 32 34 36 37 38 41 44 45
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
46 50 51 56 57 60 61 63 64 70 70 82 83
27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39
40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51

DY : 9/51, chilbirth or similar age 7/51, to adult age 35/51, and here are known ages:

Ladies : 07 09 12 16 18 20
Ladies : 01 02 03 04 05 06
22 22 23 24 28 28 31 32 32 34 36
07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
37 38 41 44 45 46 50 51 56
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
57 60 61 63 64 70 70 82 83
27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

Median, 37 years, lower quartile 23/24, higher quartile 56/57.

Gentlemen : DY 00 02 03 03 09 21 21 27 27
Gentlemen : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10
28 30 31 33 35 37 39 39 39 42 44
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
45 47 52 53 55 56 57 57 58 61 64 65 SV
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

DY : 6/34, to adult age 28/34. Here are known ages:

Gentlemen : 00 02 03 03 09 21 21 27 27 28
Gentlemen : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10
30 31 33 35 37 39 39 39 42 44 45
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
47 52 53 55 56 57 57 58 61 64 65
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

Median 39, lower quartile 27, higher quartile 53/55.

Ladies, median of known ages was, between Caesar and Constantine, in the division between 27 and 35. It is in the pre-Stauffer dynasties of Holy Roman Empire on the 37th completed birthday or above.

Gentlemen, median of known ages was, between Caesar and Constantine, in the division between 27 and 29. It is in the pre-Stauffer dynasties of Holy Roman Empire on the 39th completed birthday or above.

Lower and higher quartiles, of known ages, in pre-Stauffer HRE, 50 % of ladies dies between 24 and 56, in between Julius Caesar and Constantine it was between 22 and 45. For Gentlemen, the 50 % were between 14 and 44 in between Julius Caesar and Constantine, now, in pre-Stauffer HRE it is between 27 and 53.

DY, ladies in Classical times, 5/26, in childbirth early marriage deaths, 3/26, remain as having lived an adult life 18/26. In early High Medieval times, this is 35/51. 69.23 % - > 68.63 %, a slight decrease.

DY, gentlemen in Classical times, 21/56, leaves for adult life 35/56. In Early High Medieval, the ratio is 28/34. 62.5 % -> 82.35 %. A considerable increase. And without modern antibiotics too, except penicilline, which is essentially bread mold.

Documentation is better too. With Romans, there were 6 persons where I had no idea if it was early death or lived as adults, here we have no such example (OK, I cheated, I counted some of the children in a document of Lorch as Died Young if neither marriage nor monastic status is shown - as I also, on diverging ages took the lower one, so as to disfavour my own bias). As to the ones where I was content with DY (Died Young) or SV (Sur-Vived), the decrease in bad documentation is radical: 15/26 ladies no years, becomes 15/51 = 57.69 % -> 29.41 %; 18/56 gentlemen, no years, become 2/34 = 32.14 % -> 5.88 %. Both sexes and including the six ? for Classical times, the decrease in bad documentation is from 39/82 to 17/85. Where the totals are so near, you can see the reduction is by half even if I don't calculate percentages. More women are documented, and probably more of them lived too.

Obviously, the use of contraceptives decreased with Christianity. The childless married people are fewer.

Hans Georg Lundahl
ut supra (vel in bloggo : ut infra)

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