The seat of Satan is in Pergamon, now called Bergama. Or was back then at least.*
Most scholars have claimed it is the Zeus Altar, which was taken to Berlin by Archaeologists under the II Reich.
A minority have claimed it is actually the Serapaeum, the Red Basilica. This is countered by people claiming (in the interest of the first group) the Red Basilica is actually from Hadrian's time, II Century, therefore previous to the Apocalypse. Therefore not the pagan temple meant.
The Pergamon Altar came to Berlin, was erected in the Pergamon Museum, and has been in Berlin most of the time since then. After WW-II it briefly went to Soviet Russia but was restored** to ... EAST Berlin ... during the time of Honegger.
Leaders who theoretically could have adored Satan before that "seat of Satan" (if it is not the Serapaeum which was meant):
- Kaiser Fritz
- Lenin (if he was let out of the plumbated train and got back in)
- Stalin (during the time in Soviet Russia, in Leningrad)
... and Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin was born in Leningrad while the Pergamonaltar was there. Note however, it was stored, not erected, in Leningrad, as far as known.
The Red Basilica, the Serapaeum, is still in Pergamon. In order for it to be meant, it would need to be at least started to be built before Hadrian's time as Emperor. This is still possible, since we do not know who built the Serapaeum.
There are theological grounds for both Zeus altar and Serapaeum : Zeus being a rebel, associated with goats, claimed as ruler of earth (and heaven, but not hell nor sea), Serapis being a "god of ecumenism", a false god giving a solution to a problem caused by enmity between two other false religions, Greek and Egyptian ones. So, both could be candidates.
I have not yet looked up what the Church Fathers had to say of this.
Hans Georg Lundahl
St Rafael Archangel
* Apocalypse 2:13 ** in 1958.