New blog on the kid: Russia and US - Abortions · Φιλολoγικά / Philologica: Charlotte of Savoy married the future Lewis XI of France when she was 9 - what about her ancestry? · What is Going On Back in the Middle Ages?
On 11 March 1443, when Charlotte was just over a year old, she was betrothed to Frederick of Saxony (28 August 1439- 23 December 1451), eldest son of Frederick II, Elector of Saxony. For reasons unknown, the betrothal was annulled. Less than eight years later on 14 February 1451, Charlotte married Louis, Dauphin of France (future Louis XI), eldest son of Charles VII of France and Marie of Anjou. The bride was nine years old and the groom twenty-seven. The marriage, which had taken place without the consent of the French king, was Louis' second; his first spouse, Margaret of Scotland, had died childless in 1445. Upon her marriage, Charlotte became Dauphine of France.
Note 3 refers to Richard Vaughan, Philip the Good, (The Boydell Press, 2010), 353.
This is normally speaking against the Roman Catholic legislation of minimum 14 for the groom and 12 for the bride. One can presume they were not assuming marital life for some years and that canonists regarded this as a betrothal.
This would have been exceptional, so what about her ancestry?
Anne Lusigan of Cyprus ... Sosa Stradonitz 3.
On 9 August 1431 was signed the marriage contract between Anne and Amadeus, Prince of Piamonte and titular Prince of Achaea, eldest surviving son and heir of Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy (who later became Antipope Felix V); however, the Prince died only twenty days later, on 29 August.
She was 12, going on 13.
Mary of Burgundy, Duchess of Savoy ... Sosa Stradonitz 5.
Their marriage was contracted in the year of her birth, on 11 November 1386 in Sluis, Zeeland; they married by proxy 30 October 1393 in Chalon-sur-Saône and in person at Arras May 1401, when Mary was ca. 15 years old.
In fact, years have been proposed from 1393 to 1403. French wiki gives her age at marriage as 7, but the date of intercourse starting as 18, however gives this qualification:
D'autres années ont pu être avancées pour la date du mariage. Ainsi Samuel Guichenon, dans son Histoire généalogique de la Royale Maison de Savoie (1660), donne dans un premier temps 13933 puis quelques pages plus loin le mois de mai 14014. L'historien Bernard Demotz dans son ouvrage sur Le comté de Savoie (2000) donne quant à lui 1403 comme année du mariage. Cette dernière date correspondant aux 10 années écoulées et son déplacement en Savoie avec sa majorité.
Her oldest child is born 1405, when she was 19.
Charlotte of Bourbon, Queen of Cyprus ... Sosa Stradonitz 7.
On 25 August 1411, at Saint Sophia's Cathedral in Nicosia, Cyprus, Charlotte married as his second wife, King Janus of Cyprus and Armenia and titular King of Jerusalem.
Bonne of Berry ... Sosa Stradonitz 9.
Her first marriage was to Amadeus VII, Count of Savoy. Their marriage contract is dated 7 May 1372 and they married on 18 January 1377, but she wouldn't arrive in Savoy until 1381.
Depending on birth year, she would have been 11 or 14. Arrival in Savoy, 16 or 19.
Margaret III, Countess of Flanders ... Sosa Stradonitz 11.
In 1355, Margaret of Flanders married Philip of Rouvres, grandson and heir of Odo IV, Duke of Burgundy.
She would have been five. As he died when she was 11, she had no issue with him. In canonic view, this would have been only a betrothal. Her second marriage took place when she was 19.
Helvis of Brunswick-Grubenhagen ... Sosa Stradonitz 13.
On 1 May 1365, when she was 12 years old, she married James de Lusignan, the third son of King Hugh IV of Cyprus and Alix of Ibelin, who three years later became her stepmother. James was 19 years her senior. As they were cousins, a Papal dispensation was required for their marriage.
Note, not for her marrying at 12, not for marrying someone 19 years her senior. But for being cousins.
Catherine of Vendôme ... Sosa Stradonitz 15.
Fille du comte Jean VI de Vendôme et de Jeanne de Ponthieu, elle épouse en 1364 Jean de Bourbon, comte de La Marche
Ten, if as English wiki says she was born in 1350, again the early years of the marriage were not consummated. She has her first son at about 16 and this means by about 15 the consummation would have been done. French wiki states she was born "vers 1350".
Bonne of Bourbon ... Sosa Stradonitz 17.
She married Amadeus in September 1355 in Paris. Immediately after their wedding, her husband had to return to his army, still engaged in the Hundred Years' War.
She would have been 14.
Joan of Armagnac ... Sosa Stradonitz 19.
She became Duchess of Berry by her marriage to John, Duke of Berry in 1360.
Bonne of Luxembourg ... Sosa Stradonitz 21.
Jutta was married to John, Duke of Normandy on 28 July 1332 at the Collegiate Church of Notre-Dame, Melun. She was 17 years old, and the future king was 13. Her name Jutta (or Guta), translatable into English as Good (in the feminine case), was changed by the time of her marriage to Bonne (French) or Bona (Latin).
Margaret of Brabant, Countess of Flanders ... Sosa Stradonitz 23.
In 1347 she married Louis II of Flanders, who was then sixteen years old and already count of Flanders.
24. I think this was the oldest bride in this list.
Alix of Ibelin ... Sosa Stradonitz 25.
On 17 September 1318, the Chronicle of Amadi recorded that Alix had married Hugh de Lusignan, son and heir of Guy de Lusignan, Constable of Cyprus.
She was 12 or 14. However, her oldest child was born 7 years later.
Helisia of Dampierre ... Sosa Stradonitz 27. No article in English wiki.
Joan of Châtillon ... Sosa Stradonitz 29. No article in English wiki.
Joan of Ponthieu, Dame of Epernon ... Sosa Stradonitz 31.
On an unknown date sometime before 1351, Jeanne married Jean VI de Vendôme, Count of Vendôme and of Castres, Seigneur de Lézingnan-en-Narbonnois, and de Brétencourt of the House of Montoire.
She was born before 1336 ... with minimal "before"s we get 1335 to 1350, fifteen years. And her first one comes in 1351.
What about the men?
Lewis, Duke of Savoy ... Sosa Stradonitz 2.
On 1 November 1433 (or 12 February 1434), at Chambéry, he married Princess Anne of Cyprus, an heiress of the Kingdom of Cyprus and the defunct Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy ... Sosa Stradonitz 4.
Amédée de Savoie est marié à l'âge de 10 ans, à Chalon, le 30 octobre 1393, par sa grand-mère, Bonne de Bourbon, à Marie de Bourgogne, âgée de 7 ans.
His oldest child is from 8 years later, so add 7 to each, he was 17.
Janus of Cyprus ... Sosa Stradonitz 6.
Sometime after January 1400 he married Anglesia Visconti (died 1439), daughter of Bernabò Visconti, Lord of Milan, but the marriage was annulled and they divorced in 1408 or 1407/1409 without issue.
1375 - so he was 24 / 25.
In 1411, he married Charlotte de Bourbon (born 1388 – died of the plague on 15 January 1422 and buried in Nicosia), daughter of John I, Count of La Marche and Catherine of Vendôme, at Nicosia; they had six children:
He was 36.
Amadeus VII, Count of Savoy ... Sosa Stradonitz 8.
Amédée, comte de Bresse, épouse en 1377, à Paris, le 18 janvier 1377, Bonne de Berry, fille de Jean de France, duc de Berry et duc d'Auvergne, et de Jeanne d'Armagnac, fille du comte Jean Ier.
He was 16, going on 17.
Philip the Bold ... Sosa Stradonitz 10.
Philip the Bold married the future Countess Margaret III of Flanders on 19 June 1369
He was 27 and a half, nearly.
James I of Cyprus ... Sosa Stradonitz 12.
James married his kinswoman Helvis (Heloise) of Brunswick-Grubenhagen (1353 – January 15/25, 1421) (daughter of Philip of Brunswick, Constable of Jerusalem and Helisia of Dampierre) in 1365.
He was 21.
John I, Count of La Marche ... Sosa Stradonitz 14.
On 28 September 1364, he married Catherine of Vendôme, countess of Vendôme (d. 1412) and daughter of John VI, Count of Vendôme.
He was 20.
Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy ... Sosa Stradonitz 16.
He was married in 1355 in Paris to Bonne of Bourbon, the sister-in-law of Charles V of France.
He was 21.
John, Duke of Berry ... Sosa Stradonitz 18.
John of Berry had the following issue by his first wife, Joanna of Armagnac (1346–1387), whom he married in 1360
20 or perhaps given his late birth in 1340 more probably 19.
John II of France ... Sosa Stradonitz 20.
John reached the age of majority, 13 years and one day, on 27 April 1332, and received overlordship of the duchy of Normandy, as well as the counties of Anjou and Maine. The wedding was celebrated on 28 July at the church of Notre-Dame in Melun in the presence of six thousand guests.
He was, as mentioned, a few months older than 13. It can be mentioned that his first son is born 5 and a half years later.
Lodewyk van Male ... Sosa Stradonitz 22.
Lodewyk trouwde in 1347 mè Margaretha van Broabant, twidde dochter van Jan III van Broabant en Marie van Évreux.
He would have been more likely 16 than 17, as he was born late in 1330.
Hugh IV of Cyprus ... Sosa Stradonitz 24.
His second marriage took place on 18 June 1318, to Alix of Ibelin (1304/1306 – after 6 August 1386 and buried at Saint Dominic's, Nicosia), daughter of Guy of Ibelin by his wife and cousin Isabelle d'Ibelin.
As his birthyear is somewhat unclear, he was 24 to 27 years old.
Philip of Brunswick-Grubenhagen ... Sosa Stradonitz 26.
He married firstly Helisia de Dampierre and had a daughter:
Helvis of Brunswick-Grubenhagen (1353 ...
Let's say he was married previous year, 1352 minus 1332, makes him 20. The article on Helisia de Dampierre is missing, we don't know how old she was (from wiki, at least for now).
James I, Count of La Marche ... Sosa Stradonitz 28.
In 1335, he married Jeanne of Châtillon, daughter of Hugh of Châtillon, Lord of Leuze.
He may have been 16 or perhaps only 15, going on 16.
... Sosa Stradonitz 30.
In 1342, he married Jeanne de Ponthieu,
But the article has no birthyear, so the Spanish one has:
Juan VI de Vendôme (circa 1321/1324-febrero en 1364), condé de Vendôme y Castres (1354-1364) de la Cámara de Montoire
He was in other words between 18 (or 17, going on 18) and 21.
Just in case someone on the French right would pretend wiki is biassed, one can throw in that King St. Louis IX arguably married when he was sth like 18 and a half and his bride something like just 12. Unlike some above, this respected the papal ban on child marriages, which I think was then fairly recent and perhaps provoked by the ill-fated marriage of a daughter of John Lackland to the Scottish king at age 11, and his taking up relations on the spot. She left him and lived a secluded life, escorted back to England by her brother Henry III. But the marriage at 12 to 14 (when St. Louis was 18 and a half to 20 and a half, before his majority at 21) of Marguérite de Provence was not ill-fated, nor illegal according to this papal legislation.
Hans Georg Lundahl
Sts. Sulpicius and Servilian,
Martyrs of Rome