New blog on the kid : Change in Martyrology ... · My Benefactor had Some Points to Make on the Post About the Change in Martyrology · Remaining Questions · Φιλολoγικά/Philologica : Reasons Against? Like against year 47 AD
I gave Stephan Borgehammar a certain question, or actually two, but he had given another year, later, than I for events of Acts 21 - 23.
I had given 47. And now a few quick looks into wiki seem to ruin my theory completely. With just a glimpse of hope at the end.
Here is the office of Porcius Festus:
The exact time of Festus in office is not known. The earliest proposed date for the start of his term is c. A.D. 55-6, while the latest is A.D. 61. These extremes have not gained much support and most scholars opt for a date between 58 and 60. F. F. Bruce says that, "The date of his [Felix's] recall and replacement by Porcius Festus is disputed, but a change in the provincial coinage of Judaea attested for Nero's fifth year points to A.D. 59" Conybeare and Howson lay out an extended argument for the replacement taking place in A.D. 60.
So, he replaced one Felix, and since we do not know the same event under the other form of when Felix' term ceased, here is for start of it:
Marcus Antonius Felix (Felix, in Greek: ὁ Φῆλιξ, born between 5/10-?) was the Roman procurator of Judea Province 52–60, in succession to Ventidius Cumanus.
In fact, Acts 23 would seem to take place while Felix is still in office:
After Paul the Apostle was arrested in Jerusalem and rescued from a plot against his life, the local Roman chiliarch Claudius Lysias transferred him to Caesarea, where he stood trial before Felix. On at least one further occasion Felix and his wife Drusilla heard Paul discourse, and later on frequently sent for Paul and talked with him (Acts 24:24-26). When Felix was succeeded as procurator, having already detained Paul for two years, he left him imprisoned as a favor to the Jews (Acts 24:27).
Then procurator changes before Acts 26 - I had missed that, so while "not mad most noble Festus" is from Acts 26, Acts of Apostles 26:25, after the occasion with High Priest Ananias in Acts 23, in Acts 24 it is before Felix that St. Paul appears:
We accept it always and in all places, most excellent Felix, with all thanksgiving.
[Acts of Apostles 24:3]
This gives a gap from 47 to 52 to account for ... one way would be looking into the sources we have for when they succeeded each other.
Fadus is mentioned Joseph. Ant. xix. 9, xx. 5. § 1, Bell. Jud. ii. 11. § 5; Tac. Hist. v. 9 ; Zonar. xii. 11; Euseb. Hist. Eccl. ii. 11. Tiberius Julius Alexander is mentioned in Josephus, Antiquities 20.100 as promoted and - key - by Josephus, Antiquities 20.101-103; The Wars of the Jews 2.220.* as replaced by ...
Ventidius Cumanus, on whom: Nothing is known about Cumanus before he was appointed procurator of Iudaea in 48, in succession to Tiberius Julius Alexander. At approximately the same time as the death of Herod of Chalcis;
And footnotes have: see Josephus, War 2.223; Antiquities 20.103-104.
Oh, wait, this ties it up with fine points of grammar about a probably short mention in Josephus in connection with another event.
However, Tacitus states that Felix was already governing Samaria before 52, while Cumanus had authority over Galilee to the north (see map). Tacitus does not mention who controlled other areas of the province.
Footnote 3 says Tacitus, Annals 12.54.
At the end of Acts 23, we are told St. Paul is sent to Caesarea.
However, Caesarea was in Samaria, and in Samaria Felix was already in place before replacing Cumanus in 52.
And in Acts 24, we get another time constraint, verses 25-27:
And as he treated of justice, and chastity, and of the judgment to come, Felix being terrified, answered: For this time, go thy way: but when I have a convenient time, I will send for thee. Hoping also withal, that money should be given him by Paul; for which cause also oftentimes sending for him, he spoke with him. But when two years were ended, Felix had for successor Portius Festus. And Felix being willing to shew the Jews a pleasure, left Paul bound.
This would place Acts 24 in 58, if the succession is the well known one when Felix leaves Judaea to Festus. Would rule out my theory very efficiently, at least supposing the shift was in 60, and it was at least under Nero ...
However, what if Felix left Samaria to Festus when he took over Judaea from Cumanus? If so, we must also assume, St Paul was staying in or coming back to Caesarea during this time.
As I have a little cold** I'll take a break before getting back to - well, from wiki to its sources.
Ah, back!*** Now, what sources am I supposed to look at again ...
Josephus Antiquities: xix. 9, 20.100, 20.101-103, 20.103-104, so, 19-20 will give a nice pensum.
Josephus Jewish War: Bell. Jud. ii. 11. § 5, The Wars of the Jews 2.220, War 2.223, so, Jewish war 2.
Tac. Hist. v. 9, so Histories V
Tac. Annals 12.54, so Annals 12
But the main point of my option to repair the idea is, the reference for Felix being in command in Samaria while his predecessor Cumanus was in command in Judaea.
54 1 The like moderation, however, was not shewn by his brother, surnamed Felix;25 who for a while past had held the governorship of Judaea, and considered that with such influences behind him all malefactions would be venial. The Jews, it is true, had given signs of disaffection in the rioting prompted
the news of his murder had made complicity needless, the fear remained p395 that some emperor might issue an identical mandate. In the interval, Felix was fostering crime by misconceived remedies, his worst efforts being emulated by Ventidius Comanus, his colleague in the other half of the province — which was so divided that the natives of Galilee were subject to Ventidius, Samaria to Felix. The districts had long been at variance, and their animosities were now under the less restraint, as they could despise their regents. Accordingly, they harried each other, unleashed their troops of bandits, fought an occasional field, and carried their trophies and their thefts to the procurators. At first, the pair rejoiced; then, when the growth of the mischief forced them to interpose the arms of their troops, the troops were beaten, and the province would have been ablaze with war but for the intervention of Quadratus, the governor of Syria. With regard to the Jews, who had gone so far as to shed the blood of regular soldiers, there were no protracted doubts as to the infliction of the death penalty: Cumanus and Felix were answerable for more embarrassment, as Claudius, on learning the motives of the revolt, had authorized Quadratus to deal with the case of the procurators themselves. Quadratus, however, displayed Felix among the judges, his admission to the tribunal being intended to cool the zeal of his accusers: Cumanus was sentenced for the delinquencies of the two, and quietude returned to the province.
A little later, chapter 58, Nero is sixteen and getting married. That would be in AD 53, so the takeover by Felix over Judaea would be 53 or 52, and my chance would be Felix putting Festus in a subordinate command in Samaria, because this seems as if the parts of the province were reunited under Felix.
So, doesn't seem to match "Felix had for successor Portius Festus."
Unless Tacitus is leaving part of the story out. Now, given the character descriptions of Felix by Tacitus and Festus by St. Paul°, see:
"And Paul said: I am not mad, most excellent Festus, but I speak words of truth and soberness."
[Acts of Apostles 26:25]
In that case Festus can have started with a real but tacit (easily seen through by Jews) overcommand over Felix. And if St. Paul stood before Festus in 52, in Caesarea, he would have been before Felix in 50. Which would have been just the last year of the 70 weeks of Daniel.
I'm sorry, my cold is not the best condition for continuing this enquiry today, I'll leave off, and ...
Hans Georg Lundahl
PS, on St. Blaise' day, I thank God internet allows editing after publication, since I was too tired to add source for the Tacitus quote:
LacusCurtius : TACITUS ANNALS : Book XII (end)
I cited, as said, 12:54 from it./HGL
I actually shared this with Borgehammar, starting a debate, here are two posts in Swedish, one for the letter exchange and one more thematically and less chronologically for the debate itself:
Hans Georg Lundahls Correspondence : Med Borgehammar : correspondencen
Hans Georg Lundahls Correspondence : Med Borgehammar : discussionen
* See also Schürer, pp. 456-458. ** Reminding me of a time in Berlin when I had a cardboard "Erkältäter Straßensänger" (yes, I was too feverish to leave erkälteter as I first thought of) ... *** And thanks to the generosity of a certain "Beur" and probable Muslim, much better than I had hoped for! ° Except, St. Paul had used "excellent" as a polite adress to Felix as well, even if he wasn't - take that Quakers!