Creation vs. Evolution : 1) Henry Makow wrong about OT · 2) Graham Hancock had sth to Say on Göbekli Tepe · Φιλολoγικά/Philologica : 3) Stonehenge and Göbekli Tepe?
I have copied some wiki articles, or salient paragraphs from them on neolithic megalithic structures like Stonehenge.
Archaeologists believe it was constructed from 3000 BC to 2000 BC. The surrounding circular earth bank and ditch, which constitute the earliest phase of the monument, have been dated to about 3100 BC. Radiocarbon dating suggests that the first bluestones were raised between 2400 and 2200 BC, although they may have been at the site as early as 3000 BC.
Before the monument (8000 BC forward)
Archaeologists have found four, or possibly five, large Mesolithic postholes (one may have been a natural tree throw), which date to around 8000 BC, beneath the nearby modern tourist car-park. These held pine posts around 0.75 metres (2 ft 6 in) in diameter which were erected and eventually rotted in situ. Three of the posts (and possibly four) were in an east-west alignment which may have had ritual significance; no parallels are known from Britain at the time but similar sites have been found in Scandinavia. Salisbury Plain was then still wooded but 4,000 years later, during the earlier Neolithic, people built a causewayed enclosure at Robin Hood's Ball and long barrow tombs in the surrounding landscape. In approximately 3500 BC, a Stonehenge Cursus was built 700 metres (2,300 ft) north of the site as the first farmers began to clear the trees and develop the area. A number of other adjacent stone and wooden structures and burial mounds, previously overlooked, may date as far back as 4000 BC. Charcoal from the ‘Blick Mead’ camp 2.4 kilometres (1.5 mi) from Stonehenge (near the Vespasian's Camp site) has been dated to 4000 BC. The University of Buckingham's Humanities Research Institute believes that the community who built Stonehenge lived here over a period of several millennia making it potentially "one of the pivotal places in the history of the Stonehenge landscape."
Stonehenge 1 (ca. 3100 BC)
The first monument consisted of a circular bank and ditch enclosure made of Late Cretaceous (Santonian Age) Seaford Chalk, measuring about 110 metres (360 ft) in diameter, with a large entrance to the north east and a smaller one to the south. It stood in open grassland on a slightly sloping spot.
Let's calculate a bit:
8000 BC - 3100 BC = 4900
10 328 BC - 2792 BC = 7536*
4900/7536 = 0,65021231422505307855626326963907
2778 BC - 2062 BC = 716*0,65021231422505307855626326963907
= 465,55201698513800424628450106157, 466 years
Stonehenge can have been singled out 466 years before the structure known as Stonehenge 1. It is far less credible to have a plan at 8000 BC and executed from 3100 BC on.
The construction of these structures date back to the 6th millennium BC, though they were only rediscovered in 1966 by Henrique Leonor Pina, who was proceeding with field work relating to the country's geological charts. The excavation of the site unearthed a series of both megalithic and neolithic construction phases; Almendres I 6000 BC (Early Neolithic), Almendres II 5000 BC (Middle Neolithic), Almendres III 4000 BC (Late Neolithic). The relative chronology of the cromlech and menhirs is extremely complex and covers a period from the Neolithic to Chalcolithic, and it is believed that the monument had a religious/ceremonial purpose, or functioned as a primitive astronomical observatory.
Alemndres I vs III 6000 BC to 4000 BC. Not far from, though somewhat longer than 6449** to 4620** BC, that is 2599 to 2420 BC. 180 years for three stages of building, corresponds to some Medieval Cathedrals.
Arkaim (Russian: Аркаим) is an archaeological site situated in the Southern Urals steppe, 8.2 kilometres (5.1 mi) north-to-northwest of the village of Amurskiy and 2.3 km (1.4 mi) south-to-southeast of the village of Alexandrovskiy, in the Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, just to the north from the Kazakhstan border.
The site is generally dated to the 17th century BC. Earlier dates, up to the 20th century BC, have been proposed. It was a settlement of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture.
For once, rather close to the real date. 1675 BC as 1525 BC.***
The Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site /kəˈhoʊkiə/ (11 MS 2) is the site of a pre-Columbian Native American city (c. 600–1400 CE) directly across the Mississippi River from modern St. Louis, Missouri. This historic park lies in southern Illinois between East St. Louis and Collinsville. The park covers 2,200 acres (890 ha), or about 3.5 square miles (9 km2), and contains about 80 mounds, but the ancient city was much larger. In its heyday, Cahokia covered about 6 square miles (16 km2) and included about 120 human-made earthen mounds in a wide range of sizes, shapes, and functions.
Americas behind the Old World? No surprise.
Carhenge replicates Stonehenge's current "tumble-down" state, rather than the original stone circle erected between 2500 BC and 2000 BC
Were Almendres Cromlech and later Stonehenge replicas of Göbekli Tepe?
The Goseck circle is a Neolithic structure in Goseck in the Burgenlandkreis district in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. It may be the oldest and best known of the Circular Enclosures associated with the Central European Neolithic. It also may be one of the oldest Solar observatories in the world. It consists of a set of concentric ditches 75 metres (246 feet) across and two palisade rings containing gates in places aligned with sunrise and sunset on the solstice days.
Its construction is dated to approximately the 49th century BC, and it seems to have remained in use until about the 47th century BC. This corresponds to the transitional phase between the Neolithic Linear Pottery and Stroke-ornamented ware cultures. It is one of a larger group of Circular Enclosures in the Elbe and Danube region, most of which show similar alignments.
Radiocarbon dating places the construction of the site close to 4900 BC, while the style of the pottery shards associate it with the Stroke-ornamented ware culture of ca. 4700 BC, suggesting that the site remained in use during two or three centuries.
Excavators also found the remains of what may have been ritual fires, animal and human bones, and a headless skeleton near the southeastern gate, that could be interpreted as traces of human sacrifice or specific burial ritual.
This would be a little before 4620 BC*, that is real date 2420 BC*.
I read somewhere at Göbekli Tepe also there had been queer human remains, either sacrificial or burial.
Newgrange (Irish: Sí an Bhrú) is a prehistoric monument in County Meath, Ireland, located eight kilometers west of Drogheda on the north side of the River Boyne. It was built during the Neolithic period around 3200 BC, making it older than Stonehenge and the Egyptian pyramids. The site consists of a large circular mound with a stone passageway and interior chambers.
Newgrange would actually be between first arrival at Stonehenge and the first buildings there. After 3441 BC, that is after 2241 BC.°
The Ring of Brodgar (or Brogar, or Ring o' Brodgar) is a Neolithic henge and stone circle in Orkney, Scotland. Most henges do not contain stone circles; Brodgar is a striking exception, ranking with Avebury (and to a lesser extent Stonehenge) among the greatest of such sites. The ring of stones stands on a small isthmus between the Lochs of Stenness and Harray. These are the northernmost examples of circle henges in Britain. Unlike similar structures such as Avebury, there are no obvious stones inside the circle, but since the interior of the circle has never been excavated by archaeologists, the possibility remains that wooden structures, for example, may have been present. The site has resisted attempts at scientific dating and the monument's age remains uncertain. It is generally thought to have been erected between 2500 BC and 2000 BC, and was, therefore, the last of the great Neolithic monuments built on the Ness. A project called The Ring of Brodgar Excavation 2008 was undertaken in the summer of that year in an attempt to settle the age issue and help answer other questions about a site that remains relatively poorly understood. The results of the excavation are still preliminary.
Let's calculate a bit:
2500 BC - 2000 BC = 500 years.
2792 BC - 1964 BC°° = 828 years
500/828 = 0,60386473429951690821256038647343
2062 BC - 1704 BC°° = 358 years
= 216,18357487922705314009661835749, 216 years
Again, a building time reminiscent of Cathedrals.
Zorats Karer (Armenian: Զորաց Քարեր, locally Դիք-դիք քարեր Dik-dik karer), also called Karahunj, Qarahunj or Carahunge and Carenish (Armenian: Քարահունջ և Քարենիշ) is a prehistoric archaeological site near the town of Sisian in the Syunik Province of Armenia. The phrase Zorats Karer is literally translated from Armenian as Army Stones. It is also often referred to in international tourist lore as the 'Armenian Stonehenge.'
No date given. But far closer geographically to Göbekli Tepe.
If Göbekli Tepe was meant to be a kind of Cape Canaveral, when humanity was united and before certain technology loss, and with some directly Satanic intentions, about conquering Pearly Gates by physical force, these rings could have been, after Confusion of Tongues and ensuing technology loss, a kind of superstitious memorials of Göbekli Tepe. So as to keep memory alive.
The arrival at Stonehenge was oldest of the dates, 8000 BC = exactly when Göbekli Tepe was deliberately covered up.
I think that might be considered suggestive.
Hans Georg Lundahl
St Charles Borromeo
Updated after sight, for better graphic clarity./HGL
- * 2778 av. J.-Chr.
- 40,23593 % + 7550 ans, 10 328 av. J.-Chr.
- 2062 av. J.-Chr.
- 91,58056 % + 730 ans, 2792 av. J.-Chr.
- From my "Fibonacci recalibration":
- source for table
- ** 2599 av. J.-Chr.
- 62,75068 % + 3850 ans, 6449 av. J.-Chr.
- 2420 av. J.-Chr.
- 76,66562 % + 2200 ans, 4620 av. J.-Chr. (ibid.)
- *** 1525 av. J.-Chr.
- 98,14985 % + 150 ans, 1675 av. J.-Chr. (ibid.)
- ° 2241 av. J.-Chr.
- 86,26541 % + 1200 ans, 3441 av. J.-Chr. (ibid.)
- °° 2062 av. J.-Chr.
- 91,58056 % + 730 ans, 2792 av. J.-Chr.
- 1704 av. J.-Chr.
- 96,89571 % + 260 ans, 1964 av. J.-Chr. (ibid.)
Abandonment of Göbekli Tepe and first arrival of settlers at Stonehenge "8000 BC" = as per carbon dating. Obviously more recent than that non-extant date.
In the table, 8000 BC does not appear, but is between 10,328 BC and 6449 BC which appear next to real dates (or close enough) 2778 and 2599 BC.
For some misgiving on accuracy of table for mostly earlier part, see this post:
Creation vs. Evolution : A Fault in my Tables? A Plan for Improvement?
One more thing, it seems some have carbon dated abandonment of GT to 8600 BC.
The 600 years between "carbon dated 8600" and "carbon dated 8000 BC" have not been accounted for.
Here is that detail:
8600 - 8000 BC
within 10 328 - 6449 BC
10 328 - 6449 BC carbon dated
= 2778 - 2599 BC real time
In other words, the 600 year span as per conventional carbon dating would be a 28 year span as per reduced carbon dating to real time.
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