1) Φιλολoγικά/Philologica : "in a time when most people died at an average age of 35" ; 2) What others have to say about Life Expectancy through history - and my take on that ; 3) Longevity in Selected Ancestry and Inlaws of Eleanor of Montfort ; 4) Tudor Times Demographical Stats ; 5) How Many Hours are we Talking About, and How Heavy? ; 6) New blog on the kid : When "Answers" Paint Middle Ages Black ; 7) Creation vs. Evolution : CMI Provided some Lifespans of the Past ; 8)Other list from CMI of lifespans ; 9) Φιλολoγικά/Philologica : Medieval and Early Modern Lifespans, Again: Berkeleys and Related ; 10) Story of a Cardinal's Title with Pre-Industrial Demographics
The Church of S. Agnese fuori le mura (a catacomb, later basilica) was established as a titular church for a Cardinal Priest on 5 October 1654 by Pope Innocent X
I have reasoned that the archaeological discovery of house chaplains, 1:st C and 2:nd C AD, far from proving Rome had no monarchic bishop, in fact instead prove house chaplains and cardinals have an old tradition from earliest Christian times.
Here, I am not a Calvinist:
Great Bishop of Geneva! : Defense of Christ's institution of Hierarchy and Petrine Office, and of St Peter's successors being in Rome
I will be citing Italian wiki for why they left the post and when they lived, also when the title was vacant.
- Baccio Aldobrandini (5 October 1654 – 1 April 1658) Baccio Aldobrandini (Firenze, 20 agosto 1613 – Roma, 21 gennaio 1665, nella basilica Sant'Agnese 5 ottobre 1654 - 1º aprile 1658 nominato cardinale presbitero dei Santi Nereo e Achilleo.
- Girolamo Farnese (6 May 1658 – 18 February 1668) Girolamo Farnese (6 maggio 1658 - 18 febbraio 1668 deceduto), Girolamo Farnese (Latera, 30 settembre 1599 – Roma, 18 febbraio 1668) è stato un cardinale italiano, duca di Latera.
- Vitaliano Visconti (18 March 1669 – 7 October 1671) Vitaliano Visconti (18 marzo 1669 - 7 settembre 1671 deceduto), Vitaliano Visconti (Milano, 1618 – Monreale, 7 settembre 1671) è stato un cardinale e arcivescovo cattolico italiano.
- Vacante (1671 - 1672)
- Federico Borromeo (8 August 1672 – 18 February 1673), Federico IV Borromeo (8 agosto 1672 - 18 febbraio 1673 deceduto), Federico Borromeo (Milano, 29 maggio 1617 – Roma, 18 febbraio 1673) è stato un cardinale italiano. Federico Borromeo (indicato anche con il numero progressivo di Federico IV Borromeo come conte d'Arona) ...
- Vacante (1673 - 1690)
- Toussaint de Forbin-Janson (10 July 1690 – 28 September 1693), Toussaint de Forbin-Janson (10 luglio 1690 - 28 settembre 1693 nominato cardinale presbitero di San Callisto), Toussaint de Forbin-Janson (Mane, 1º ottobre 1630 – Parigi, 24 marzo 1713) è stato un cardinale e vescovo cattolico francese.
- Giambattista Spinola (20 February 1696 – 7 April 1698), Giambattista Spinola (20 febbraio 1696 - 7 aprile 1698 nominato cardinale presbitero di Santa Maria in Trastevere), Giambattista Spinola detto il Vecchio (Madrid, 20 settembre 1615 – Roma, 4 gennaio 1704) è stato un cardinale e arcivescovo cattolico italiano.
- Vacante (1698 - 1706)
- Rannuzio Pallavicino (25 June 1706 – 30 June 1712), Rannuzio Pallavicino (25 giugno 1706 - 30 giugno 1712 deceduto),
Appassionato di scrittura, pubblicò diverse opere, sotto lo pseudonimo di Asterio Sireo; si possono citare: L'intreccio di gigli e perle (1660), un'antologia di poesia, La Scalza di Avila (1661), una biografia di Santa Teresa, Ho Trionfi dell'Architettura (1667), che descrive il palazzo del principe elettore di Baviera, Atalanta (1667), una tragedia ed infine Ritratto di una gran Principessa (Monaco, Luca Straub, 1668), una raccolta di odi dedicate ad Enrichetta Adelaide di Savoia.
- Vacante (1712 - 1721)
- Giorgio Spínola (20 January 1721 – 15 December 1734), Giorgio Spinola (20 gennaio 1721 - 15 dicembre 1734 nominato cardinale presbitero di Santa Maria in Trastevere), Giorgio Spinola (Genova, 6 giugno 1667 – Roma, 17 gennaio 1739) è stato un cardinale italiano della Chiesa cattolica.
- Serafino Cenci (27 June 1735 – 24 June 1740), Serafino Cenci (27 giugno 1735 - 24 giugno 1740 deceduto), Serafino Cenci (Roma, 20 maggio 1676 – Roma, 24 giugno 1740) è stato un cardinale e arcivescovo cattolico italiano.
- Filippo Maria De Monti (23 September 1743 – 10 April 1747), Filippo Maria de Monti (23 settembre 1743 - 10 aprile 1747 nominato cardinale presbitero di Santo Stefano al Monte Celio), Filippo Maria de Monti (Bologna, 23 marzo 1675 – Roma, 17 gennaio 1754) è stato un cardinale italiano.
Il cardinale de Monti è stato Segretario di Propaganda Fide.
Here some words on that one:
Founded in 1622 by Pope Gregory XV's bull Inscrutabili Divinae, the body was charged with fostering the spread of Catholicism and with the regulation of Catholic ecclesiastical affairs in non-Catholic countries. The intrinsic importance of its duties and the extraordinary extent of its authority and of the territory under its jurisdiction caused the Cardinal Prefect of Propaganda to be known as the "red pope".
At the time of its inception, the expansion of colonial administrations was coming to be largely in Dutch and English hands, both Protestant countries intent on spreading these religious doctrines, and Rome perceived the very real threat of Protestantism spreading in the wake of commercial empire. By 1648, with the end of the Thirty Years' War, the official religious balance of established Christianity in Europe was permanently stabilized, but new fields for evangelization were offered by vast regions of Asia, Africa and the Americas then being explored.
There had already been a less formally instituted cardinal committee concerned with propaganda fide since the time of Pope Gregory XIII (1572–1585), who were especially charged with promoting the union with Rome of the long-established eastern Christian communities: Slavs, Greeks, Syrians, Egyptians, and Abyssinians. This was the traditional direction for the Catholic Church to look for evangelizing. Catechisms were printed in many languages and seminarians sent to places as far as Malabar. The most concrete result was the union with Rome of the Ruthenian Catholic communion, most concentrated in modern-day Ukraine and Belarus; the union was formalized at Brest in 1596.
The death of Gregory XV the following year did not interrupt the organization, because Cardinal Barberini, one of the original thirteen members of the congregation, became the next pope as Urban VIII (1623–1644). Under Urban VIII, a central seminary (the Collegium Urbanum) was set up for training missionaries. The Congregation also operated the polyglot printing press in Rome, printing catechisms in many languages. Their procurators were especially active in China from 1705, moving between Macau and Canton before finally settling in Hong Kong in 1842.
In strongly Protestant areas, the operations of the Congregation were considered subversive: the first missionary to be killed was in Grisons, Switzerland, in April 1622, before the papal bull authorizing its creation had been disseminated. In Ireland after Catholic emancipation (1829), while the established church was still the Protestant Church of Ireland, the Irish Catholic church came under the control of the Congregation in 1833, and soon reformed itself with a devotional revolution under Cardinal Cullen.
These "Cardinals in General Congregation" met weekly, keeping their records in Latin until 1657, then in Italian. The minutes are available in microfilm (filling 84 reels) at large libraries. In the course of their work, the Propaganda fide missionaries accumulated the objects now in the Vatican Museum's Ethnological Missionary Museum.
Since 1989 the incumbent Prefect is also President of the Interdicasterial Commission for Consecrated Religious.
In 2014 Sr. Luzia Premoli, superior general of the Combonian Missionary Sisters, was appointed a member of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, thus becoming the first woman to be appointed a member of a Roman curial congregation.
- Frédéric Jérôme de La Rochefoucauld (15 May 1747 – 29 April 1757), Frédéric-Jérôme de La Rochefoucauld (15 maggio 1747 - 29 aprile 1757 deceduto), Frédéric-Jérôme de La Rochefoucauld de Roye (Versailles, 16 luglio 1701 – Parigi, 29 aprile 1757) è stato un cardinale, arcivescovo cattolico e abate francese, creato cardinale da papa Benedetto XIV.
- Etienne-René Potier de Gesvres (2 August 1758 – 24 July 1774), Etienne-René Potier de Gesvres (2 agosto 1758 - 24 luglio 1774 deceduto), Étienne-René Potier de Gesvres (Parigi, 2 gennaio 1697 – Parigi, 24 luglio 1774) fu nominato cardinale della Chiesa cattolica da papa Benedetto XIV.
Some tidbits from French wiki, in my resumé:
He was also a bishop of Beauvais, he really cared for his diocese, he used the Lettres de cachet (that means Bastille or possibly also similar places) to extirpate Jansenism.
He cared for the poor.
I am not sure if the street in Paris named Gesvres is after him or after a relative. There is a police department there.
- Vacante (1774 - 1778)
- Luigi Valenti Gonzaga (30 March 1778 – 29 November 1790), Luigi Valenti Gonzaga (30 marzo 1778 - 29 novembre 1790 nominato cardinale presbitero dei Santi Nereo e Achilleo), Luigi Valenti Gonzaga (Roveredo di Guà, 15 ottobre 1725 – Roma, 29 dicembre 1808) è stato un cardinale italiano.
What! A Gonzaga who lives to over 80!
Back in the 16th C Gonzagas were dying so early I thought diabetes was hereditary. Perhaps Luigi Valenti lived after the diabetes genes had been lost of the family?
He cared for the tomb of Dante Alighieri:
La tomba di Dante Alighieri a Ravenna, fatta restaurare dal Valenti Gonzaga durante il suo periodo come legato pontificio in Romagna. https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:TombaDante.jpg
The most famous Gonzaga was of course short lived too:
"Saint Aloysius Gonzaga, S.J. (Italian: Luigi Gonzaga; March 9, 1568 – June 21, 1591) was an Italian aristocrat who became a member of the Society of Jesus. While still a student at the Roman College, he died as a result of caring for the victims of an epidemic. He was beatified in 1605, and canonized in 1726."
Caring for the victims of an epidemic, sure, but perhaps his immune system was weakened when doing so? I saw other Gonzagas of Mantua in the ancestry of Marie Antoinette who also died young.
So, seeing a Gonzaga live long was somewhat of a surprise to me!
- Vacante (1790 - 1802)
- Giuseppe Spina (24 May 1802 – 21 February 1820), Giuseppe Maria Spina (24 maggio 1802 - 21 febbraio 1820 nominato cardinale vescovo di Palestrina), Giuseppe Maria Spina (Sarzana, 11 marzo 1756 – Roma, 13 novembre 1828) è stato un cardinale e arcivescovo cattolico italiano.
- Dionisio Bardaxí y Azara (27 September 1822 – 3 December 1826), Dionisio Bardaxí y Azara (27 settembre 1822 - 3 dicembre 1826 deceduto), Dionisio Bardaxí y Azara (Puyarruego, 7 ottobre 1760 – Roma, 3 dicembre 1826) è stato un cardinale spagnolo.
He had to leave Rome to Spain due to invasion by Napoleon.
- Ignazio Nasalli-Ratti (17 September 1827 – 2 December 1831), Ignazio Nasalli-Ratti (17 settembre 1827 - 2 dicembre 1831 deceduto), Ignazio Nasalli-Ratti (Parma, 7 ottobre 1750 – Roma, 2 dicembre 1831) è stato un cardinale italiano.
Note the family Ratti include Pope Pius XI (Achille Ratti). Like him before his papacy (in Poland), Ignazio Nasalli-Ratti was a diplomat. Lucerne (where he was also bishop), Netherlands.
- Vacante (1831 - 1833)
- Filippo Giudice Caracciolo (30 September 1833 – 29 January 1844), Filippo Giudice Caracciolo, Orat. (30 settembre 1833 - 29 gennaio 1844 deceduto), Filippo Giudice Caracciolo (Napoli, 27 marzo 1785 – Napoli, 29 gennaio 1844) è stato un cardinale e arcivescovo cattolico italiano.
Abbreviation "Orat." means he was in the Oratorium of St Philip Neri, like Cardinal Newman.
- Hugues-Robert-Jean-Charles de la Tour d’Auvergne-Lauraquais (16 April 1846 – 20 July 1851), Hugues-Robert-Jean-Charles de La Tour d'Auvergne-Lauraquais (16 aprile 1846 - 20 luglio 1851 deceduto), Hugues-Robert-Jean-Charles de La Tour d'Auvergne-Lauraquais (Auzeville-Tolosane, 14 agosto 1768 – Arras, 20 luglio 1851) è stato un cardinale francese.
Was not in time for the conclave which elected Pope Pius IX.
- Girolamo D’Andrea in commendum (18 March 1852 – 14 May 1868), Girolamo d'Andrea (18 marzo 1852 - 28 settembre 1860 nominato cardinale vescovo di Sabina); in commendam (28 settembre 1860 - 14 maggio 1868 deceduto), Girolamo d'Andrea (Napoli, 12 aprile 1812 – Roma, 14 maggio 1868) è stato un cardinale italiano.
Since he is born after 1800, I will leave him outside the study of demographics previous to industrial revolution.
Gerolamo Marquese d' Andrea (1812–1868) was an Italian Cardinal. He was born at Naples, educated at the Collège of La Flèche, France, and was early appointed Archbishop of Mytilene in partibus infidelium.
In 1852 he was appointed Cardinal-abbot of Subiaco, and Prefect of the Congregation of the Index, and in 1860 Bishop of Sabina.
He took sides with the Patriotic party in 1859 on the question of the national unity of Italy, and at the same time counseled extensive liberal reforms in Church policy. He was suspended from his diocese and abbacy and threatened with permanent deposition from office. He ultimately submitted, and in 1868 was rehabilitated, without, however, being restored to his diocese and the abbacy of Subiaco.
- Lorenzo Barili (24 September 1868 – 8 March 1875), Lorenzo Barili (24 settembre 1868 - 8 marzo 1875 deceduto), Lorenzo Barili (Ancona, 1º dicembre 1801 – Roma, 8 marzo 1875) è stato un cardinale italiano, nominato da Papa Pio IX.
- Pietro Giannelli (31 March 1875 – 5 November 1881), Pietro Gianelli (31 marzo 1875 - 5 novembre 1881 deceduto), Pietro Gianelli (Terni, 11 agosto 1807 – Roma, 5 novembre 1881) è stato un cardinale e arcivescovo cattolico italiano.
- Charles-Martial Allemand-Lavigerie (3 July 1882 – 25 November 1892) - the guy who inspired me to look up this list. Cardinal Lavigerie Fought Slavery
- Georg von Kopp (19 January 1893 – 4 March 1914), Georg von Kopp (19 gennaio 1893 - 4 marzo 1914 deceduto), Georg von Kopp (Duderstadt, 25 luglio 1837 – Troppau, 4 marzo 1914) è stato un cardinale e vescovo cattolico tedesco.
He was known for his anti-Polish views and pursued Germanization of his Polish parishioners.
Not all Cardinals are perfect!
- Károly Hornig (28 May 1914 – 9 February 1917), Károly Hornig (28 maggio 1914 - 9 febbraio 1917 deceduto), Il barone Károly Hornig von Hornburg (Budapest, 10 agosto 1840 – Veszprém, 9 febbraio 1917) è stato un cardinale e vescovo cattolico ungherese.
On 30 December 1916, he crowned King Károl I and Queen Zita of Hungary.
These are of course the same as Emperor Karl I and Empress Zita of Austria. And since he was the last Habsburg actual ruler in Austria, so far, he is nicknamed Karl der Letzte - Charles the Last.
- Adolf Bertram (18 December 1919 – 6 July 1945), Adolf Bertram (18 dicembre 1919 - 6 luglio 1945 deceduto), Adolf Bertram (Hildesheim, 14 marzo 1859 – Javorník, 6 luglio 1945) è stato un cardinale e arcivescovo cattolico tedesco, nominato cardinale da papa Benedetto XV.
He avoided openly breaking with Hitler. Racial laws of Nuremberg confronted the sacrament of matrimony, and his protest was secret.
When Catholics of Jewish origin were deported to camps, his protest was secret.
He did however openly protest against the state sponsored adultery of Lebensborn.
Ronald J. Rychlak, a US Historian, denies any charge of ideological closeness with National Socialism, but considers he was a diplomat obeying orders for diplomatic reasons.
If you want heroism among German bishops, look to the one Bishop of Munster. Clemens August Graf von Galen, nicknamed the Lion of Munster!
- Samuel Alphonse Stritch (22 February 1946 – 26 May 1958), Samuel Alphonsius Stritch (22 febbraio 1946 - 26 maggio 1958 deceduto), Samuel Alphonsius Stritch (Nashville, 17 agosto 1887 – Roma, 27 maggio 1958) è stato un cardinale e arcivescovo cattolico statunitense.
He was an Irish-American from Nashville Tennessee.
He also was not participating in Vatican II, since he died in 1958, like Pius XII.
If Pius XII was an apostate and Clement XV true pope from 1950, Samuel Stritch was not recognising that. But he was not involved in less controversial apostates like John XXIII, since he died before Pius XII.
Entertainer Elaine Stritch was his niece.
- Carlo Confalonieri (18 December 1958 – 15 March 1972), Carlo Confalonieri (18 dicembre 1958 - 15 marzo 1972 nominato cardinale vescovo di Palestrina), Carlo Confalonieri (Seveso, 25 luglio 1893 – Roma, 1º agosto 1986) è stato un cardinale italiano.
Alas involved in Vatican II Sect.
As Dean, he led the funeral Masses for Paul VI as well as Pope John Paul I. Confalonieri was not able to participate in the conclaves of August and October 1978 for he had exceeded the age limit of 80 to be an eligible elector. However, he was the first to suggest the name of Albino Luciani, who was elected John Paul I, during the period before the August conclave.
On a lighter and brighter note:
Confalonieri published a moving tribute to Pope Pius XI with numerous valuable anectotes.
Like his master Pius XI, Confalonieri greatly enjoyed mountain climbing.
- Louis-Jean Guyot (5 March 1973 – 1 August 1988), Louis-Jean-Frédéric Guyot (5 marzo 1973 - 1º agosto 1988 deceduto), Louis-Jean-Frédéric Guyot (Bordeaux, 7 luglio 1905 – Bordeaux, 1º agosto 1988) è stato un cardinale e arcivescovo cattolico francese.
Since he is from Bordeaux and died 1988, I think he might have been pretty conservative, still.
In 1935 Guyot obtained a Doctorate in Sacred Theology from the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum with a dissertation entitled L'incorporation au Christ par les sacrements d'après la doctrine de st. Thomas.
Back then, he was certainly a Catholic and the men who made him doctor were probably right.
Since he retired from his bishopric of Toulouse in 1973, it is also probable he was not too badly involved in the Liturgic Disasters of the Seventies.
- Camillo Ruini (28 June 1991 – Present), Camillo Ruini, dal 28 giugno 1991 ... born 19 February 1931
Ruini was born in Sassuolo, Emilia-Romagna. Having studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome, he obtained a licentiate in philosophy and a licentiate in sacred theology.
He was ordained to the priesthood on 8 December 1954, by Archbishop Luigi Traglia. In 1957 he returned to Reggio Emilia and taught philosophy at the diocesan seminary until 1968. From 1958 to 1966 he served as chaplain to university graduates and from 1966 to 1970 he served as a delegate for Azione Cattolica.
So he is at least a validly ordained priest, if perhaps not bishop. And his licentiates of philosophy and theology are of course not very contestable, unless dating from after Pius XII fell.
Here are however the years, first chronologically:
20 agosto 1613 – 21 gennaio 1665
30 settembre 1599 – 18 febbraio 1668
1618 – 7 settembre 1671
29 maggio 1617 – 18 febbraio 1673
1º ottobre 1630 – 24 marzo 1713
20 settembre 1615 – 4 gennaio 1704
19 ottobre 1633 – 30 giugno 1712
6 giugno 1667 – 17 gennaio 1739
20 maggio 1676 – 24 giugno 1740
23 marzo 1675 – 17 gennaio 1754
16 luglio 1701 – 29 aprile 1757
2 gennaio 1697 – 24 luglio 1774
15 ottobre 1725 – 29 dicembre 1808
11 marzo 1756 – 13 novembre 1828
7 ottobre 1760 – 3 dicembre 1826
7 ottobre 1750 – 2 dicembre 1831
27 marzo 1785 – 29 gennaio 1844
14 agosto 1768 – 20 luglio 1851
Now arranged in order of magnitude and provided with numbers below, for ease of determining medians and so on:
51 53 55 55 58 64 66 68 71 72 77 78 78 81 83 83 84 88
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Minimum 51, lower quartile 58, median between 71 and 72, higher quartile 81, maximum 88.
All born before 1800, since that is where I finished the stats. So, born before Industrial Revolution occurred on the Continent (which as a century later than in England) did not mean a man was necessarily dying around 30, as some nincompoops have claimed:
I mean BG here:
Correspondence of Hans Georg Lundahl : Continuing with BG, trying to bring in history, getting a few dialogues on moral issues.
He had actually made the same claim previous in same series, as I recall, but he insisted more than once in that one not to get ANY research done by me read by himself.
NOT a great historian. And considering his occupation (see link, if you care for it), I am NOT surprised.
Hans Georg Lundahl
Queenship of the Blessed Virgin Mary